Biology Midterm Study Guide

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Biology Midterm Review

1.1
The goal of science is to investigate and understand the natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful prediction •Scientific thinking usually begins with observation, the process of gathering information about events or processes in a careful -observation generally involves using the senses esp. hearing & sight -the information gathered from observations is called data.

Quantitative date expressed as number
-Qualitative data are descriptive and involve characteristics •After observations, the researchers will propose one or more hypotheses. •A hypothesis- is a proposed scientific explanation for a set of observation -some hypotheses are tested by gathering more data

1.2
Spontaneous generation- hypothesis stating that life could arise from nonliving matter •Whenever possible, a hypothesis should be tested by an experiment in which only one variable is changed at a time. All other variables should be kept unchanged, or controlled. •Controlled experiment-a test of the effect of a single variable by changing it while keeping all other variables the same. •Manipulated variable- factor in an experiment that a scientist purposely changes (INDEPENDENT VARIABLE) •Responding variable- factor in an experiment that a scientist wants to observe, which may change in response to the manipulated variable (DEPENDENT VARIABLE) •Theory- well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observation 1.3

Living things share some characteristic
-living things are made up of units called cells
-living things reproduce
-living things are based on a universal genetic code
-living things grow and develop
-living things obtain and use materials and energy
-living things respond to their environment
-living things maintain a stable internal environment
-taken as a group, living things change over time
Some of the levels at which life can be studied include molecules,...
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