Biology Midterm Study Guide

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Chapter 1/2 Bio Study Guide
Section 1.1-Scientific Method
Science- An organized way of gathering and analyzing evidence about the natural world Scientific Method
1. Collecting observations
2. Asking questions
3. Forming a hypothesis
4. Experiment
5. Analyze results and draw conclusions
6. Revise hypothesis
Control Group- a group in the experiment that receives no experimental treatment Independent Variable- Variable that you change in the experimentX-axis Dependent Variable-Variable that you are measuring, “your data” Section 1.2

Laws- Events that will always occur in nature
Theory- Well tested explanations on why things occur in nature Graphs
Line Graph- When data is continuous
Bar Graph- When the information is not continuous
Pie Graph- When dealing with percents
Characteristics of Life
1. Cellular Organization
* Cell is smallest unit capable of life functions
* Unicellular organisms- one celled organisms
* Multi-cellular organisms- more than one celled organisms Levels of Organization

2. Reproduction
* Necessary for survival of a species
Species- Organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring * Asexual reproduction- Reproduction that does not involve the union of sex cells, Offspring is clone of parent * Sexual reproduction- Reproduction that involves the union of sex cells, Offspring look unique 3. Homeostasis

* The ability for organisms to keep their internal conditions stable * We maintain homeostasis by:
-Sweating
-Shivering
-Wearing Clothes
-Physical Activity
4. Heredity
* Living things are based on universal genetic code DNA
* Genetic code is almost identical in every organism
* Mutation- Change in genetic material of a cell
5. Responsiveness
* Living organisms respond to external stimuli
* Stimulus- A signal to which an organism responds
6. Growth and Development
* Growth- Increase of all organisms mass
* Development- Change in structure for an organism to become an adult * Differentiation- The process in which cells become specialized to do different functions 7. Evolution
* Groups of organisms change over time
* Evidence of this is found in fossils
* Organisms with genetic traits that better enable them to meet nature’s challenges survive and reproduce in greater numbers 8. Metabolism
* The sum of all chemical reactions happening in an organism * Living things obtain and use material energy
What Biologists Do?
* Study diversity of life
* Research diseases
* Improve agriculture- Genetic Engineering
Units of Measure- Metric System
Kilo Hecto Deca Base Deci Centi Milli
M,L,G
Section 2.1 Nature of Matter
* All matter is made up of atoms
* Atoms have a nucleus containing protons, neutrons, and electrons * Nucleus has a positive charge
* Atoms have neutral charge
* Element- a pure substance made only of one kind of atom * Common elements are:
-Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen 96 %
-Phosphorus, Sulfur, Calcium, Potassium 4%
* Iron and Iodine are necessary for life
* Isotopes- Atoms of the same element with different neutrons * The # of neutrons is often equal to the # of electrons
* Total number of protons and neutrons=Mass Number
Chemical Bonding
* Formed when two or more different elements chemically combined Ionic Bonds
* Formed when one or more electrons is transferred from one atom to another * Ion-An atom that has gained or lost an electron
* Cation- Positive Ion
* Anion- Negative Ion
Covalent Bonds
* Formed when two or more atoms share electrons- Non Metals * Molecule- A group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds Van der Waal Forces
* Attractions between positive and negative regions between molecules * They can hold molecules together
Section 2.2 Properties of Water
Polarity
* Water is a polar molecule
*...
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