Biology Final Study Guide

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CHAPTER 6 (SECTION 6.3)
Bonding
Carbon- 4 bonds attached
Oxygen- 2 bonds attached
Hydrogen- 1 bond attached
Purines vs. Pyrimidines
Purines- adenine & guanine
Pyrimidines- cytosine, thymine (DNA), uracil (RNA)
Pentose vs. Hexose sugars
Pentose- 5 carbon atoms
Hexose- 6 carbon atoms
Carbohydrates Empirical Formula
CH2O
Hydrolysis vs. Condensation Reactions
Hydrolysis- using water to break down protein into amino acids
Condensation Reaction- nucleotides
Enzymes- a protein that speeds up a chemical reaction
- usually end in -ase
Ribose vs. Deoxyribose
Ribose- C5H10O5
Deoxyribose- C5H10O4
Lipids- Glycerol + Fatty Acids
"ELF"
-if one fatty acid bonds to a glycerol molecule, a monoglyceride is formed (L) -if two fatty acids bond to a glycerol molecule, a diglyceride is formed (F) -if three fatty acids bond to a glycero molecule, a triglyceride is formed (E) Proteins- made up of amino acids

Amino Acids- 20 Types
-"R" group changes
RNA vs. DNA
RNA- one strand
DNA- two strands (double helix)
Nucleic Acids- long polymers of repeating subunits called nucleotides Isomers- same molecular formula, but different structural formula

Chapter 7
Robert Hooke
-(English) observed cork through a simple microscope (1665)
-hollow boxes- cells (dead)
Plasma Membrane vs. Cell Wall
Plasma Membrane- surrounds an animal cell
Cell Wall- surrounds a plant cell
Mitochondria
-"powerhouse"
Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes
Prokaryotes- most are single celled
-lacks internal structures surrounded by membranes
-DNA is concentrated in an area referred to as the nucleoid region
-have cytoplasm
-have plasma membrane
Eukaryotes- single or mlti-cellular
-contains membrane bound structures called organelles
-more complex
-have a membrane bound nucleus
Cilia vs. Flagella
Cilia- little hairs
Flagella- long tail
Chromatin Network- DNA
Plastids-chromoplasts- red/blue
-chloroplast- green
-carotene- orange/yellow
-leukoplasts- white
Animal vs. Plant Cells (shape)
animal- round
plant- rounded rectangle
Cytology- the study of cells
Cell- basic unit of life
Plasma Membrane
Osmosis vs. Diffusion
osmosis- diffusion of water molecules
diffusion- movement of molecules from an area of gueater concentration to an area of lesser concentration Turgor pressure- pressure that exists inside a cell
Isotonic, Hypotonic, and Hypertonic Solutions
Isotonic- a solution in which the sconcentration of dissolved substances is the same as the concentration inside the cell
- no change in cell size
Hypotonic- a solution in whichdsfaasdf the concentration of dissolved substance is lower than the concentration inside the cell
- pressure increases and cell swells
Hypertonic- a solution in which the concentration of dissolved substances is higher than the concentration inside the cell
- pressure decreases and cell shrivels
Pinocytosis vs. Phagocytosis
pinocytosis- "cell drinking"; the cell taking in a drop of liquid
phagocytosis- "cell eating"; the lysosomes of white blood cells digesting bacteria Endocytosis vs. Exocytosis
endocytosis- moving into a cell
exocytosis- moving out of a cell
Plasma Membrane- Semi- Permeable (lets some stuff through)
- Lipid Bilayer (composed of 2 layers of fat w/ a layer of protein on each side) Transport Proteins- proteins embeddes in the lipid bilayer which allow needed substances or waste materials to move through the plasma membrane Active vs. Passive Transport

active- the transport of material across the concentration gradient
- lesser concentration to greater concentration
- requires the cell to expend energy
passive transport- the passive transport of materials across the plasma membrane by means of transport proteins (facilitated diffusion) Chapter 9
Aerobic...
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