Biology Final Study Guide

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  • Topic: Blood, Heart, Spermatozoon
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BIOLOGY 1101 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE

(1-24) Reproduction
Male Reproduction
- Testis = where sperm cells are made (in tubuoles) and then are housed/enclosed in the scrotal sack o The Inguenal Canal is the muscle that allows the testis to drop (occurs about 1yr old) - The tubuoles merge to form the Epididymus at the top of the testes…this is where sperm are stored - Seminiferous Tubuoles = all the coils in the balls…all of these eventually lead to the epididymus - After sperm is collected in the epididymus, the sperm travels up into the Vas Deferens o The VD wraps around and eventually becomes the Urethra o Urethra (Uro-Genital Tract) = the tube coming out of the penis - When sperm is ejaculated into the vagina…some die in the beginning, some get lost…when the rest get to the top of the canal, half of them go left and half of them go right…. - Sperm Cells

o The head contains the father’s DNA and can also produce hydrolytic enqymes ▪ The Acrosome is what holds the hydrolytic enzymes in the head and breaks the egg membrane o The neck / middle piece is packed with mitochondria o The Tail is the only flagellated cell in the human body…called the flagellum

3 Glands that put stuff into the fluid that is ejaculated
1. Prostate --- produces alkaline solution
2. Seminal Vesicle --- secretes (1) Fructose (6C sugar) for sperm energy and (2) Prostoglandin which causes
vaginal contractions
3. Cowper’s Gland aka Bulbo-Urethra --- produces mucus that (1) lubricates the penis and (2) protects sperm

3 Sources of Acidity that the Prostate secretion Counteracts 1. Vagina – secretes acetic acid
2. Sperm waste products
3. Urine residue in the urethra

- 50 million per day = the number sperm cells for a 20 yr old in his sexual prime - 250-300 million = the number of sperm when the guy above ejaculates o This number’s so high because that’s how much are needed to ensure that...
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