Biology 2 Final Exam Review

Topics: Blood, Heart, Muscle Pages: 21 (4874 words) Published: June 25, 2013
LAB 6: Vertebrate Systems
Review Sheet:
• Tissue: Integrated group of cells with a common function • Organ: a specialized center of body function composed of several types of tissues • Organ system: a group of organs that work together to perform vital body functions • Major Organ systems in the fetal pig:

o Digestive: food processing (ingestion, digestion, absorption, elimination) • Mouth⋄pharynx⋄Esophagus⋄stomach⋄intestines⋄ Liver⋄ Pancreas⋄anus • Small Intestine- absorbs nutrients. Made of epithelial, muscle and vascular tissue. o Circulatory- internal distribution system

• Heart⋄ Blood Vessels ⋄ blood
o Respiratory-Gas exchange
• Trachea⋄ lungs
o Immune- Gas exchange
• Bone Marrow, lymph nodes, thymus, spleen, white blood cells o Excretory- Disposal of metabolic wastes and keeps the osmotic balance of blood • Kidney, Urinary Bladder,

o Endocrine- Coordination of body activities
• Pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, adrenal
o Reproductive: Ovaries/Testes
o Nervous- Stimuli and coordination
• Brain, spinal cord, sensory organs, nerves o Integumentary- Protection against physical injury and dehydration, thermoregulation: Skin o Skeletal: support, protection of organs

• Bones, tendons, ligaments, cartilage
o Muscular: motion
• The planes of division in the fetal pig (sagittal, transverse, frontal planes) o Sagittal plane: divides body into right and left
o Frontal plane: perpendicular to sagittal plane. Divides body into dorsal and ventral o Transverse plane: divides body into cranial and caudal [pic]
• Anatomical Terms:
o Dorsal: Back vs. Ventral: Belly
o Cranial: Head vs. Caudal: Tail
o Distal (Away from the reference point) vs proximal (towards the reference point) o Lateral (away from the midline) vs. Medial (Towards the midline) • External Anatomy of fetal pig

o Shoulders: pectoral girdle
o Hips: pelvic girdle
o Sex:
• Female: genital papilla under the tail
• Urogenital orifice is directly under the anus that dispels urine. • Male: prepucial orifice under the umbilical cord and scrotum under the tail that dispels urine and sperm. • [pic]

o Oral Cavity:
• External:
• Large mouth with muscular lips underneath are the teeth. • External Nares lead to the nasal cavity • There are three eyelids: fleshy upper eyelids, small lower eyelids, nictitating membrane (3rd eyelid) that cleans the eye • Internal

• Epiglottis is the flap of tissue that extends behind the palate. The hard palate lies in front of the soft palate. They separate the nasal cavity from the oral cavity. • Papillae (bumps) cover the surface of the tongue. These bumps have taste buds on them. • Nasal cavities are separated by the nasal septum. • The pharynx leads to the esophagus,which goes to the digestive tract. • The slit opening to the trachea in the mouth is the glottis, which covered by the epiglottis the flap of tissue prevents food from going into the lungs leads to the trachea that goes into the lungs. At the beginning of the trachea is the larynx (voice box). o External Ear: Auricle covers the external acoustic meatus that leads to the tympanum or eardrum. o Umbilical Cord: contains 2 umbilical arteries through which blood flows to the placenta. Blood is returned through the umbilical vein. o The mammary Papilla are the small bumps on the stomach of the pig (both male and...
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