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Chapter 23 - The Heart

331

The Heart - Key
1 2 3 What is the name of the central region of the thorax? The central region of the thorax is the mediastinum. About how much of the heart is to the left of the mid-sternal line? Two-thirds of the heart is to the left. Where is the location of the apex of the heart? The apex of the heart is located to the left at the fifth intercostal space.

Figure 23.2 11 In reference to Figure 23.2, identify #1 - #3. 3 Epicardium 1 Pericardium 2 Pericardial cavity

Figure 23.1 In reference to Figure 23.1, identify #1 - #5. 1 Mid-sternal line 4 5th rib 2 Sternum 5 Fifth intercostal space 3 Diaphragm COVERINGS OF THE HEART 5 What is the name of the covering of the heart? The heart is covered by the pericardium, or pericardial sac. 6 What is the function of the fibrous layer of the pericardium? The fibrous pericardium functions to protect the heart and to anchor the heart inferiorly to the pericardium and superiorly to the heart’s vessels. 7 What is the name of the inner layer of the pericardium? The inner layer of the pericardium is a serous membrane called the parietal layer of the pericardium. 8 What is the name of the serous membrane on the surface of the heart? The surface of the heart called the visceral layer, or epicardium. 9 What forms the pericardial cavity? The two portions of the serous membrane, the visceral and parietal layers form the pericardial cavity. 10 What is the function of the serous membrane? The serous membrane produces and maintains the serous fluid in the pericardial cavity. 4

Figure 23.3 12 In reference to Figure 23.3, identify #1 - #4. 3 Pericardial cavity 1 Adipose 2 Pericardium 4 Epicardium GROSS ANATOMY OF THE HEART 13 What is the name of the upper chambers of the heart? The two upper chambers are called atria. 14 What is the name of the lower chambers of the heart? The two lower chambers are called ventricles. 15 What divides the right and the left chambers of the heart? A longitudinal partition, which consists of the interatrial and interventricular septa, divides the heart into right and left sides. 16 What is the function of the right side of the heart? The right side is responsible for receiving blood low in oxygen from the body (systemic circuit) and pumping it to the lungs (pulmonary circuit) where oxygenation occurs. 17 What is the function of the left side of the heart? The left side is responsible for receiving oxygenated blood from the lungs (pulmonary circuit) and pumping it to the body (systemic circuit). 18 What is the name of the muscle of the heart? The muscle of the heart is called the myocardium. 19 What is an auricle of the heart? The myocardium of each atrium is called an auricle.

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Chapter 23 - The Heart

20 Which side of the heart is thicker? Left Why? The increased thickness of the left ventricle is due to its increased work load of pushing blood through the systemic circuit. Valves of the Heart 21 Where are the atrioventricular valves located? The atrioventricular valves are located between the atria and ventricles. 22 What are the names of the right and the left atrioventricular valves? The AV valves are the tricuspid on the right side and the mitral (or bicuspid) on the left side. 23 What is the function of the atrioventricular valves? The atrioventricular valves prevent blood return back into the atria. 24 What is the name of the exiting vessel from the right ventricle? The pulmonary trunk leaves the right ventricle. 25 What is the name of the exiting vessel from the left ventricle? The aorta leaves the left ventricle. 26 What is the name of the valve located at the base of each exiting vessel? Valves, the pulmonary valve and aortic valve (or semilunar valves), are located at the bases of the pulmonary trunk and aorta, respectively. 27 What is the function of the aortic and pulmonary valves? The pulmonary and aortic valves (semilunar valves) prevent the return of blood into the ventricles.

Figure 23.5 29 In...
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