Biology 1010 Study Notes

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1. What are confounding variables?
2. What are experimental controls?
3. What is the difference between a scientific fact, law, and theory? 4. What are the 'norms' of science?
5. What are the differences between the four common types of organic molecules? 6. Why do cells make ATP?
7. How can you distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, and between haploid and diploid cells? What types of cells fall into these categories? 8. What is the function of cellular respiration? Where in the cell does it occur? 9. What is the function of all enzymes?

10. Why do cells perform photosynthesis?
11. Why do different proteins look and function differently from each other? 12. What causes different cells in the body to look and function differently from each other/? 13. What is the function of DNA?

14. What is a gene?
15. What is the relationship between DNA, alleles, genes, and chromosomes? 16. How do the DNA base sequences specify the sequences of amino acids in a protein? 17. What is a mutation?
18. What does it mean to say that a gene is expressed in a cell? 19. What are regulatory genes?
20. What is cancer?
21. Why are some genetic diseases more common among males than females? 22. How can a bacteria cell be genetically engineered to produce a human protein? 23. What is somatic cell nuclear transfer and how is it used in cloning? 24. What are stem cells?

25. What is the difference between pluripotent and multipotent stem cells? 26. What is evolution? What does it mean if you say that a population is evolving? 27. How does natural selection occur?
28. How are natural and sexual selection similar? How are they different? 29. What is an adaptation?
30. How can you tell if two organisms belong to the same species, and how do new species evolve? 31. How do we interpret evolutionary trees?
32. What are vestigial traits?
33. What does it mean if two structures are homologous?
34. What were important evolutionary changes in the history of life on...
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