Biological Science

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Biological Science
Lesson 1

Zoology - branch of biology that deals with the life of animals.

1. Morphology - studies forms and structure of animals.
a. Gross anatomy - performs surgical technique ; dissection (cutting up).
b. Paleontology - studies pre-historic forms of animals through fossil. 2. Histology - study of tissues & organs, their structure, functions & composition at a microscopic level. 3. Cytology - study of the structure & function and its parts at microsopic level or electromicrospic level. 4. Physiology - study of living organism's function as a whole ; studies function of the vitak processes of living animals. 5. Embryology - study of formation & development of an animal until it is fully grown. 6. Genetics - deals with mode of trandmission of traits from one generation to the next ; studies heredity, and variations in similar related animals. 7. Evolution - any change across successive generations in the inherited characteristics of biological populations. 8. Ecology - study of relation of the animals to their immediate environment.

a. Biotic - plantd, other animals, microorganism: bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi.
b. Abiotic - air, water, land/soil, and rocks.
9. Zoogeography - distribution of animals in space.
10. Taxonomy -classification, study of laws and principle governing the grouping and naming of animals. 11. Parasitology -study of parasites (organism that live on the expense of another organism). 12. Molecular Biology - molecular and subcellular structure the chemical reaction underlying biological processes.

* paternity testing - DNA testing in medical legal cases.

Invertebral zoology - without back-bone.
a. Protozoology - unicellular animal
b. Helmintology - helminths/ parasitic worms
c. Malcology - mollusks
d. Entomology - insects
Vertebral Zoology - with back-bone.
a. Ichthyology - fish
b. Herpetology - reptiles & amphibians
c. Ornitology - birds
d. Mammalogy - mammals
Characteristics of scientist:
- meticulous, curious, observant, neat & tidy, intelligent, intuitive, persistent, hard-working, rational, free of bias, critical thinker, intellectually honest, responsible, and a bit lucky.
Scientific Method - scientific, a method of inquiry must be based on empirical and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning.
a. observation
b. hypothesis (formulated statement)
c. predictiom
d. experimentation
e. conclusion

*History
15th & 16th century
1. Animaxander, Xenophanes Empedodes - contributed on the origin of the earth. (animals, plants or habitat) 2. Aristotle - father of zoology ; first zoologist.
- "Historia Animalium" - contains information about animal found in Greece, Macedonia and Asia Minor. 3. Galen - first experimental physiologist.
4. Pliny - a Roman pioneer in Biology who compiled "Natural History", an encyclopedia covering different animals. (facts & fiction)

Renaissance Period
1. Robert Bacon - Roman contributor to arts & humanities related to Human Behavior. 2. Albert Magnus
3. Andreas Vesalius - modern anatomy
4. William Harvey - physiology, introduced experimental & quantative demonstration in physiology.
- said that blood flows in vessels.

Industrial Age - first microscopists
1. Anton Leeuwenhook - made the microscope
2. Marcelo Malpighi - traced bloodflow through capillaries
3. Robert Hooke - discovered nucleus, cytoplasm & cell membrane 4. Carolus Linnaeus - binomial system of nomenclature in classifying & namin ; two names - genus species.
ex. Human - homo sapien
5. Fabricus - described the early embryonic development
6. Karl Ernst von Baer -germ layer theory ; father of embryology 7. Charles Darwin - theory of evolution
8. Gregor Johann Mendel - father of genetics
9. M.J. Schleiden - formulated the cell theory
10. Louis Agassiz - intiated the present practice of first hand study of the student. 11. Richard Owen - wrote a book "a comparative anatomy &...
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