Bio Medical Waste Management

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PART 2 : SUMMARY OF THE PROJECT

Introduction :

Dr. Sushila Tiwari Memorial Government Hospital, Haldwani is a 640 bedded tertiary care associated teaching hospital of Government Medical College, Haldwani. The Hospital has OPD block, Operation Theatres (OT) Block, Ward Areas, ICCU, NICU, ICU, Blood Bank, Emergency, Teaching Areas in Ward and OPDs, Radiology, Canteen, Laundry, Mess area. The average daily attendance in OPD is approx 1000, Emergency/Casualty is approx 100, and IPD is approx 72 admissions per day with bed occupancy of 86%. On an daily average, approx 70 operative procedures, 250 Radiological investigations and procedures and approx 1800 Laboratory Investigations and procedures are performed. The hospital is supported by the Central Bio-Medical Waste treatment facility at its super Speciality Campus for the disposal of the Bio-Medical waste generated by the hospital. The facility is equipped with Incinerator with 100Kg/hour capacity with proper air pollution control devices and effluent treatment plant, a microwave and a shredder. The hospital is well authorized under stipulated rules by the Uttarakhand Environment Protection and Pollution Control Board, Haldwani. According to Bio Medical Waste (Management and Handling )Rules 1998 of India "Bio-medical waste" means any waste, which is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunisation of human beings or animals or in research activities pertaining thereto or in the production or testing of biological, and including categories mentioned in Schedule I". About 75-90% waste generated by the health care facilities (HCF) is Non-Hazardous or Non-Risk and the remaining 10-25% are "Hazardous" or "Risk" waste and may create various healths hazardous. The Hazardous waste generated in the HCF can be categorized as presented in Table.1 Table 1: Healthcare waste categories and description

Waste categoryDescription and examples
Infectious waste Waste suspected of containing pathogens e.g. laboratory cultures, waste from isolation wards, tissues, materials or equipment having been in contact with infected patients, excreta Pathological waste Human tissue or fluids e.g. body parts, blood and other body fluids, human foetuses Sharps Sharp waste e.g. needles, infusion sets, scalpels, knives, blades, broken glass, etc. Pharmaceutical waste

Waste containing pharmaceuticals e.g. pharmaceuticals which are expired or no longer needed, items contaminated or containing pharmaceuticals (bottles, boxes) Genotoxic waste Waste containing substances with genotoxic properties e.g. waste containing cytotoxic drugs (often used in cancer therapy),genotoxic chemicals Chemical waste

Waste containing discarded chemical substances e.g. laboratory reagents, film developer, disinfectants which are expired or no longer needed, solvents Wastes with high content of heavy metalse.g batteries, broken thermometers, blood pressure gauges Pressurized containers e.g. gas cylinders, cartridges and aerosol cans Radioactive waste

Waste containing radioactive substances e.g. unused liquids from radiotherapy or laboratory research, contaminated glassware, packages or absorbent paper, urine and excreta from patients treated or tested with unsealed radio-nuclides

The Bio-Medical Waste (Management & Handling) Rules 1998 of India has categorized the waste into 11 Categories as per the schedule-I of the rules. The categorization is presented in the Table-2. Table-2 : Categorization as per bio-medical waste regulation CategoryType of waste

1.Human anatomical wasteHuman tissues, organs, body parts
2.Animal wastesAnimal tissues, organs, body parts, carcasses, fluid, blood; experimental animals used in research, waste generated by veterinary hospitals 3.Microbiology and biotechnology wastes

Waste from laboratory cultures, stocks or specimens of micro-organisms, live or attenuated vaccines, human and animal cell cultures used in research, infectious agents from research and...
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