Yr 12 Biology Summary Notes
Rangitoto College 2006
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN CELLS
Achievement Standard 90464 – Biology 2.8 – Describe cell structure and function TYPES OF CELLS
• PROKARYOTIC CELLS = more primitive, unicellular, have no organised nucleus, no membrane-bound organelles, genetic material is 1 circular DNA molecule, can have tiny extra rings of DNA called plasmids, all have cell walls e.g. bacteria and blue-green algae
• EUCARYOTIC CELLS = unicellular or multi-cellular, plant and animal cells, have a nucleus, have membrane-bound organelles, DNA is wound around histone proteins e.g. all plant and animal cells, Euglena, Paramecium, Amoeba, yeast
|ORGANELLE |WHERE FOUND |STRUCTURE |FUNCTION | |Cell(Plasma) |Plant & animal cells, |- 2 layers of phospho-lipids |- boundary between cell and environment | |Membrane |All pro & eukaryotes |- hydrophilic end = to water |- regulates flow of substances in and out | | | |- hydrophobic end = to centre |- proteins involved in transport | | |surrounds cytoplasm |- globular proteins in layer |- cell recognition | | | |- carbohydrates project out | | | | |- cholesterol in lipid tails | | |Cytoplasm |Plant & animal cells |- jelly-like fluid made up of water, ions, |- where most cell reactions occur | | |All pro & eukaryotes |small molecules and proteins |- supports organelles | | | | | | | |inside cell membrane and | | | | |outside nucleus | | | |Chromosomes/ |Plant & animal cells, |- made up of DNA (deoxy-ribose nucleic acid)|- carries genetic code for making proteins e.g.| |Genetic Material |All pro & eukaryotes | |enzymes, hormones | | | |- with histones if eukaryotic | | | |inside nucleus if eukaryotes | | | |Ribosome |Plant & animal cells, |- made of ribosomal RNA that is made in the |- site of protein synthesis | | |All pro & eukaryotes |nucleolus of the nucleus |- free ribosomes make proteins needed in | | | |- made of 2 sub-units |cytoplasm | | |free in cytoplasm or on rough |- non-membranous |- ribosomes on ER (rough ER) make proteins to | | |ER, commonly found in secretory| |be transported/ secreted out of cell...
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