BIO 3U1 Study Notes

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BIO UNIT 1 STUDY NOTES
History of Classification
Aristotle (384-322 BC)
-greek philosopher
-classified living things in 2 kingdoms (ANIMALS AND PLANTS) -Plants = herbs, shrubs & trees
-Animals= those of sea, air and land
-lasted 2000 years
Theophrastus (372-287 BC)
- “Father of Botany”
- 2 botanical works
Andrea Cesalpino (1519-1603)
- Italian physician
- created 1st new system of classifying plants
- classified plants on the basis of the structure of their fruits and seeds John Ray
- english clergyman
- plants according to similarities&differences
- based on observation
- first to use the word “SPECIES”
Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778)
- Swedish Botanist
- the origin of scientific names
- considered the ‘Father of Taxonomy”
- developed Binomial Nomenclature
- two Latin or Latinized words
- first letter of the Genus name is always capitalized.. the species name is entirely lower case - arranged organisms based on common structural features
- Linnaeus settled with Latin
- altered to accommodate micro-organism
TAXON ORDER:
DOMAIN(3): Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
KINGDOM(6): Bacteria, Archaea, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia PHYLUM
CLASS
ORDER
FAMILY
GENUS
SPECIES

Herbert F. Copeland (1902-1968)
- American who re-classified all the micro-organisms
- championed that Protista was different then other organisms in 1956 Robert H. Whitaker (1924-1980)
- An american
- founded the “Five Kingdom System”
- most recent is kingdoms and prokaryotes have been split into eubateria, bacteria and archeobacteria

Carl P. Woese (1960’s)
- proposed another taxon larger then a kingdom
- called it a domain
- placed in 1 of 3 domains
- based on nucleic acid studies (specifically ribosomal RNA)

Classification
Modern Critera?
1) Morphological (cell type)
2) Physiological & Metabolic (ex. Reproduction) (asexual v. sexual) (autotroph?/ heterotroph?) (vertebra or envertibray)
3) Ecological (Range and Life cycle)
4) Molecular (Protein analysis & nucleic acid analysis)
5) Genetic Analysis- (DNA)

??PROBLEM??
- is it really a new organism? Truly a new species or just an adaption of an existing one? ex > 2 different dogs > DNA . REPRODUCTION
-if they can reproduce successfully (OFFSPRING IS FERTILE)
**Over time DNA modifies***
lion x tiger
Liger (Infertile)

Symbiotic -> 2 organisms that live together
Relationship types:
1) parasitism (-/+)
2) comensalism (+/_)
3) mutualism (+/+)

!
!

The Domain Archaea
-> Carl Woese 1970

Domain: Archaea
Kingdom: Archaea
-> similar to bacteria
Cell Type: Prokaryote -> no membrane bound organelles
# Cells:
Unicellular -> microscopic -> genetically & chemically different Nutrition: Autotrophic & Heterotrophic
Means of Reproduction:
- Asexual-> Binary Fission & Budding
- Mostly composed of cells that live in extreme environments - can outcompete organisms in these difficult conditions but not in regular conditions - lack peptidoglycan in their cell wall
** It is believed that eukaryotes branched off from archaea approx. 1.7 billion years ago - Similar mRNA sequences are found between them
- Not Susceptible to antibiotics

Divided into 3 main groups:
1) Methanogens
*example of comensalism/ mutualism
- live in anaerobic environments (no oxygen)
- obtain energy by changing hydrogen & carbon dioxide into methane gas - found in swamps, marshes, sewage treatment plants, digestive tracks of animals - break down cellulose for herbivores (cows)

- produce marsh gas or intestinal gas (methane)

2) Extreme Halophiles - live in very salty water
- found in the Dead Sea, Great Salt Lakes, etc.
- use salt to help generate ATP (energy)-nutrition

3) Thermoacidophiles (Thermophiles)
- live in extremely hot (110’C) and acidic (pH2) water (pH14) - found in hot springs in Yellowstone national park, in volcanic vents & cracks in ocean floor

-Source of food??
autotrophs -> chemosynthesis (N,S)
- some find o2 poisonous (obligate anaerobe) ex. Thermophiles -...
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