Bio 181

Topics: Atom, Chemical bond, Protein Pages: 74 (19910 words) Published: January 29, 2013
Chapter 1 Intro: The study of Life
Properties of Life
1. Precise organization (Order)
2. Ability to take in energy and use it. (Energy utilization) 3. Ability to respond to stimuli ( Response to the environment) 4. Capacity for growth and development
5. Ability to reproduce
6. Ability to regulate internal environment (Homeostasis) 7. Ability to evolve ( Evolutionary adaptation)
8. Living organisms are cell based, made of one or more cells 9. Life is DNA based
Gray Areas….lots of gray areas in biology
For example virus are not cell based although some do have DNA wrapped in protein coat and other viruses have double stranded RNA.
Prion is mad cow disease and it is only a rod of protein

Themes of Biology
1. Emergent Properties- life is very complex, as complexity gets bigger more emerge3nt properties reveal. Life itself is an emergent properties. If things are not put together in the right way, the emergent properties will not emerge. a. Molecules

i. In your body we have glucose and water
ii. Every molecule has properties, depending on the atom and how the atoms are arranged

b. Organelle
iii. A nucleus is an organelle, and a chloroplast is also an organelle iv. Organelles are made up of many molecules
c. Cells
d. Tissue
e. Organ
f. Community
2. Cell is the simplest unit of life
g. The cell is the lowest level of structure that is capable of performing all the activities of life v. Unicellular- made of one cell
vi. Multi cellular- many cells
h. The first cells were observed and named by Robert Hooke in 1665 from a slice of cork.. made from the bark of a cork oak tree. vii. He named them cells because they reminded him about jail cells i. Anton van Leeuwenhoek was the first person to see single-celled organisms in pond water and observe cells in blood and sperm. j. The cell theory: first proposed in 1839. (Schwann)

viii. A theory is an explination that is put together from lots and lots expieriments. Based on data collected, not a best guess or a best belief ix. The theory stated that all living things consist of cells k. In 1855, the cell theory was extended ( Theorys are and can be modified )—All cells come from other cells, new cells are produced by the division of existing cells. l. Cells reproduce, grow, and repair…….

3. Life is based on heritable information in the form of DNA – Life is DNA based m. Biological instructions for life are encoded in DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) n. DNA is the ‘substance’ of genes

o. DNA double helix
p. Single strand of DNA (Nucleotide) **Fig 1.10
x. G
xi. T
xii. A
xiii. C
q. Genomes (Human and Others)
xiv. The entire library of genetic instructions that an organism inherits is called its genome. 1. The Human genome is 3 billion chemical letters long (3 billion letters of the nucleotides (4 letters)) 2. The rough draft of the sequence of nucleotides in the human genome was published in 2001 3. Biologists are learning the functions of thousands of genes and how their activities are coordinat3ed in the development of an organism. a. Our closest relative shares 98% of the same sequence it is a chimpanzee that lives in Africa 4. Structure/Function

r. Form fits structure, so the shape of something fits is function xv. For example a hammer is structured very well to pound in hammers s. Understanding the structure gives clues about function xvi. For example a bird, the bones in the bird are honeycombed inside, which makes them strong yet lightweight xvii. Example 2 nerve cells or neurons the hair like extensions make it very efficient xviii. Mitochondria is an organelle inside the cell,...
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