Bio 112

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Evolution : biodiversity
Form
Anatomy
Structure
Morphology : The study of different shapes
Function
Mechanics (biomechanics)
Physiology : study of function

Steve Vogel : founding father of Biomechanics
* “without function is a corpse, without form is….” EX :
* Form : Large muscles
* Function : lifting weight
Assumption : should be able to lift heavier loads

Comparative
Morphology and Physiology
The more comparisons you make, the easier it gets to understand Ex : digestive system of a cat vs. a dogs then the cat and dog systems vs. a humans, etc.

Organization
* EX : Human
Kingdom : Animal
Phylum : Chordates
Class :Mammalia
Order : primates
Family : Hommidae
Genus : Homo
Species : Sapiens
Homo sapiens
always underline Latin names

Organisms
Must obtain energy
Grow
Reproduce
Basic traits
Cells
Evolution via natural selection

Theory vs. Hypothesis
Theory
Broad pattern
Series of supported hypotheses
Hypothesis
Scientific question
Can be supported through experimentation

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Cell Theory
Discovery of cells
First major conceptual breakthrough in bio
Robert Hooke (1665)
Discovered cells
Cork (30x Magnification)
Studied springs – similar to muscles
Early 1800’s : all organisms consist of cells
Pattern : cells exist in nature and are the basic constituent of all biological entities But where do cells come from?
Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)
Tested process component of cell theory
Challenged SPONTANEOUS GENERATION
Spontaneous Generation : cells could be randomly produced
Generated the process component of cell theory
All cells originate from preexisting cells
Important implications
Support for cell theory
Common ancestry

Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
What is evolution?
Common ancestry
Change
Time
Adaptation
Appearance (phenotype)
Genetic code (genotype)
Pattern : species are related by common ancestry and change through time Process : natural selection
Camolfloge insects are less likely to be found / consumed
Variation
Moths can be oreo colored or black and be from same egg case

Natural selection
Two conditions must be met :
Individuals in a population VARY in heritable traits
Population : group of individuals of the same
Heritable traits interact with the environment
Favorable versions of heritable traits facilitate survival and reproductive success Over time, the population changes

Tree of Life

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* The closer the branches are the more closely related they are *
* Molecular data separates phylogenies
*
Ex: Whale Sharks
Lamniforms – stiff tail
Used to be orecrolobiformes – fleshy tail

Phylogeny : tree of life / cladogram

Linnaean Taxonomy
Carolus Linnaeus
Taxonomy : the effort to name and classify organisms
Binomial Nomenclature
Genus species
Species : individuals that regularly breed together or have distinguishable differences Introduced in 1700’s
PROBLEM
Only two kingdoms
Animal
Plant
Current kingdoms
Animals
Protists
Fungi
Bacteria
Plants
Archaea – debatable

Advances in microscopy
Enhanced understanding for cells
Two types
Eukaryotic cells have a membrane-bound nucleus
Prokaryoktic cells do not
*

Evolution by Natural Selection
Jean-Baptise de Lamarck
First to propose a formal theory of evolution (1809)
Species change through time
Change via inheritance of acquired traits
Environmental stress causes change in phenotype
Phenotypic changes during life passed on to offspring
EX : Lamarck’s Giraffe
Keeps stretching neck to reach higher leaves, eventually have long neck ALELLES CANNOT CHANGE
Darwin & Wallace
Variation of individuals within populations
Important
Responsible for the changes
Nature of Species
Change through time
Related by common ancestry
Geographic relationships
homologies
Evidence?
Fossil record
Fossils : traces of an organism that has lived in the past
Sedimentary rocks (layers)...
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