ANATOMY STUDY GUIDE
Ionic bond: A chemical bond resulting from the attraction of oppositely charged ions.
Covalent bond: A strong chemical bond in which to atoms share electrons.
Cell components (explain their functions):
Classification scheme of living organisms:
Enzymes (explain functions) :
Steps of cellular respiration:
How does the body grow and maintain itself?
The body is made up of tiny cells - for example, skin cells, muscle cells, heart cells, nerve cells, and bone cells. When a baby grows, the number of cells increases very quickly. A cell becomes a bit larger, then divides into 2 "daughter" cells (Figure 1). After a period of time, each of these cells divides, and so on. Normal cell division. A cell grows a bit larger then divides into 2 cells. Once a child grows to adulthood, the size of the body no longer increases. However, our bodies go through a lot of wear and tear, both inside and outside. Worn-out cells constantly need to be replaced, so cell division still takes place, but more slowly. An obvious "outside" change is the tiny bits of dead skin flaking off as the skin constantly renews itself. Although our bodies' cells continue to divide to replace worn-out cells, this happens in a very ordered, systematic way. The reason is that each cell carries genetic instructions that regulate how fast the cell should grow and divide and when the cell should die. A balance between cells growing and dying keeps our bodies functioning normally. When cell growth goes out of control
Cell growths can be classified as either benign or malignant. Benign growths Sometimes a cell starts to grow without regard for the normal balance between cell growth and death, and a small, harmless (or benign), lump of cells will form. A benign growth can occur in any part of the body, including the prostate, skin, or intestine. Malignant growths In other cases, a cell may grow and divide with complete disregard for the needs and limitations of the body. Cells that have this aggressive behaviour are called malignant. They have the potential to grow into large masses or spread to other areas of the body. More commonly, a mass of such cells is called a cancer. When clumps of these cells spread to other parts of the body, they are metastases. A cancer that continues to grow can eventually overwhelm and destroy the part of the body or particular organ where it is located. | Meiosis | Mitosis |
Definition: | A type of cellular reproduction in which the number of chromosomes are reduced by half through the separation of homologous chromosomes, producing two haploid cells. | A process of asexual reproduction in which the cell divides in two producing a replica, with an equal number of chromosomes in each resulting diploid cell. | Function: | sexual reproduction | Cellular Reproduction & general growth and repair of the body | Type of Reproduction: | Sexual | Asexual |
Occurs in: | Humans, animals, plants, fungi | all organisms | Genetically: | different | identical |
Crossing Over: | Yes, mixing of chromosomes can occur. | No, crossing over cannot occur. | Pairing of Homologues: | Yes | No |
Number of Divisions: | 2 | 1 |
Number of Haploid Daughter Cells produced: | 4 | 2 | Chromosome Number: | Reduced by half | Remains the same | Steps: | The steps of meiosis are Interphase, Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, Telophase I, Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II and Telophase II. | The steps of mitosis are Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase and Cytokinesis | Karyokenesis: | Occurs in Interphase I | Occurs in Interphase | Cytokenesis: | Occurs in Telophase I & Telohpase II | Occurs in Telophase | Centromeres Split: | The centromeres do not separate during...