Bio 101 Study Guide

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BIO EXAM 1
BUILDING BLOCKS
Aminoacids->Proteins->Enzymes
Glucose=Polysaccrides
Glyseral=Fat Molecule
Neoclotides= DNA & RNA
CRITERIA OF LIFE: (5)
A. Biology: What is it?: BIOLOGY: is the scientific study of life B. What is life? -- Criteria for life: All living organisms have similar properties
-composed of cells made up of macromolecules
-growth, development & reproduction
-heritable information in the form of DNA
-sensitivity to stimuli
-homeostasis (maintenance of internal environment)
-use of energy
     1. Definite Structure or Organization
     2. Responsiveness (irritability)-> flinching
     3. Movement->all moves in its lifetime
     4. Metabolism-> energy compounds, burns calories
     5. Homeostasis-> consistent internal balance while external environment changes      6. Growth and development-> changing form as life ages      7. Reproduction->making more of one species
     8. Evolution->adaptation over time
     10. The particular combination of above impt
D.  Unifying principles of biology
     1. Evolution:
           two stage process:
                a. genetic variations
                b. selection acting on this variation      2. Energy-> for reproduction (purpose of life)
E Impt. of bio. to citizen
     medicines from plants:
     human ethics:
     political decisions:
     human curiosity:
SCIENTIFIC METHOD: (1)
F. Who uses biological concepts
Biologists use the scientific method to study the processes that affect living things Biologists explore life at levels ranging from the biosphere(life on earth) to molecules that make up cells G. What is science: The word SCIENCE is derived from a Latin verb meaning “to know” All braches of science acquire knowledge via the scientific method 1. DEDUCTIVE REASONING: leads one to infer something specific from a general premise

example: All boys are bad>>>John is a boy>>>Therefore John is bad 2. INDUCTIVE REASONING: leads one to infer general principles from specific examples
example: John is bad>>>Tony’s bad, Tim’s bad, Larry’s bad>>> Therefore boys are bad Scientific Method: Deductive Reasoning
OBSERVATION: obtaining facts & information or prior knowledge QUESTION: observations usually stimulate curious people to ask questions HYPOTHESIS: a possible answer to the question, or explanation of the observations PREDICTION: if…then statement about the outcome, a possible experiment EXPERIMENT: a test of your hypothesis

CONCLUSIONS: evaluation of experimental results
     l. objective study:
     2. test hypothesis: THEORY: is a widely accepted explanatory idea that is broad in scope & supported by a large body of evidence
-A theory is not a guess or hypothesis
-How does reason interact with theory? THEORY uses inductive reasoning>>>lots of experiments specifically to support reason      3. predict & control events: CONTROL GROUP: a standard for comparison, identical to experiment group except for variable being studied

example: 500 students with average IQ of 100, you give a months supply
250 (control group) get a “fake” pill & 250 (experimental group)
IQ results 108(control) & 100(experimental)
SAMPLING ERROR: non-representative samples skew results & is minimized by using a large sample size CHEM 1: (12)
Chemistry of life
MATTER: everything in the universe, weight or occupies space ELEMENTS: make up matter, A substance whose atoms all have the same atomic #, Can NOT be broken down by ordinary chem. means
S-> sulfur
P-> phosphorus
O-> oxygen
N-> nitrogen
C-> carbon
H-> hydrogen
ATOMS: particles that retain properties of an element
Structure and characteristics of atoms:
          1.  Protons -- w/+ elect chg. (# of protons determines the element)                    ATOMIC# : sum of all of an atom’s protons           2.  Neutrons – NO charge (H has none). ATOMIC MASS#: # of protons + # of neutrons

          3.  Electrons -- w/ - chg.
repel one another, are...
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