Neuman views environment as the totality of three types of stressors that interact with a person at any moment in time, they are internal, external and created forces (intrapersonal, interpersonal and extrapersonal stressors). (Creasia & Friberg, 2011). The Internal environment exists within the client. The External environment exists outside the client system. The extrapersonal environment is an environment that is created and developed unconsciously by the client. The environment has the potential to alter the patients stability. Neuman also states that these environments are sources of stressors and provides resources (interventions) to manage the stressors. Examples of some resources are strong family support, strong coping skills and education. There are three levels of interventions: primary prevention, secondary prevention and tertiary prevention. Neuman’s model system is a tool to be used in caring for patients and being able to identify the stressors and resources needed to maintain quality of life, disease prevention and getting the client back to their optimum level of functioning.
Primary prevention reduces the possibility of encounter with stressors and strengthens the flexible lines of defense according to Conceptual Foundations. Secondary prevention relates to appropriate prioritizing of interventions to reduce symptoms resulting from invasion of environmental stressors and protects the basic structure by strengthening the internal lines of resistance. Tertiary prevention focuses more on re-adaptation and stability with a goal to strengthen resistance to stressors by reducing the recurrence of reaction or regression. In some ways this tens to lean back toward primary prevention.
The Neuman systems model is an open systems model that views nursing as being primarily concerned with defining appropriate actions in stress related situations. Neuman believes that nursing involves the whole client...
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