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Behavioural Science

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This was proposed by George Engel in 1977 at the University of Rochester

BIOLOGICAL SYSTEM; It deals with the anatomical, structural and molecular substrate of disease and the effect of patients’ biological functioning.

PSYCHOLOGICAL SYSTEM: it treats the effects of psychodynamic factors, motivations and personality on the experience of and reaction to illness.

SOCIAL SYSTEM: it examines the cultural, environmental and familiar influences on the expression and experience of illness

Engel postulated that each system affects and is affected by all others.

Also Engel’s model doesn’t treat medical illness as a direct result of people’s psychological or socio-cultural make up; rather, it promotes a comprehensive understanding of disease and treatment.

The patient-doctor relationship is a critical component of the biopsychosocial model. Physicians must have both a working knowledge of the patient’s medical status and be familiar with how the patient’s individual psychology and socio-cultural milieu affects their medical condition.

SPIRITUALITY: Some evidence suggest that strong religious belief, spiritual yearning, prayers and devotional acts have positive influence on a person’s mental and physical health.

It is there4 important for doctors to be aware of spirituality in their patient lives and to b sensitive to their patient’s religious beliefs.

In some instances beliefs can impede medical care e.g. the refusal of some religious group to undergo blood transfusion.

In most cases, however, when treating people with strong religious beliefs, the physician will welcome collaboration with religious counselors (pastoral counsel).


This talks about the association btw psychiatry and medicine.

1. Psychological factors as causes of physical illness.

2. Physical illness as cause of psychiatric disorders

a. Dementia and other cognitive...

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