1. Fill in: Transformation Transduction Conjugation
a. Transformation _ naked DNA is involved
b. Transduction ____faulty head stuffing may occur
c. Conjugation_____ involves exconjugants
d. Transduction____ adsorption and injection of genetic material e. Transformation__ competent cells required
f. Conjugation ____ an F plasmid encodes attachment proteins g. Conjugation _____used to construct the E. coli minute map h. Conjugation_____ a pilus is produced
i. Transduction____ lytic cycle entered in response to stress j. Transduction____ may be specialized or general
k. Conjugation_____ requires cell to cell contact
l. Transduction ____mediated by a virus
m. Conjugation _____known as parasexual mating
n. Transformation __requires competent cells
o. Transduction ____involves a phage
2. Fill in - you may use a term more than once, or not at all
F Factor (plasmid)
F minus (F-)
a. A plasmid can be maintained extrachromosomally__ or integrate into bacterial chromosome. b. In generalized_ transduction, all bacterial DNA has equal probability of being packaged into progeny phage c. In _ lysogeny __, the phage genome integrates into bacterial genome creating a prophage. d. The F Factor (plasmid)_ contains ~100,000 base pairs and contains 19 genes that encode for proteins involved in pilus synthesis and other functions e. The F factor occasionally integrates randomly into the E. coli chromosome creating a _ Hfr strain _ f. The creation of a knockout mouse uses the process of __ recombination___ to replace DNA with an engineered construct
3. What is the difference between:
a. A plasmid and a chromosome
Plasmid: A extra chromosomal which may or may not integrate with the main genome. It gives additional characters to the cell like antibiotic resistance.
Chromosome: The main genome of the cell. It controls all functions of the cell.
b. Transduction and transformation
Transduction: Exchanged between virus's.
Transformation: Picking up genes from the enviroment.
c. A phage and a bacterium
Phage: A virus that infects and replicates within bacteria.
Bacterium: Microscopic life form, single-celled, various species are responsible for decay, fermentation, nitrogen fixation, and many plant and animal diseases.
d. An F+, an Hfr, and an F- cell
F+: Sex pilus for conjugation in bacteria, it is capable if bacterial modification through conjugation.
Hfr: High frequency recombinant cells are cells that were modified via conjugation and are now F+.
F-: Doesn't have a sex pilus and is not capable of conjugation.
e. A donor and recipient cell
Donor: Produces pilus.
Recipient: The one the pilus attaches to.
f. Lytic and lysogenic cycle
Lytic: The virus attaches to bacteria (host). The virus inserts its DNA into the bacteria.The virus takes over the cell's machinery. The virus reproduces itself and self-assembles. The host cell is destroyed.
Lysogenic: there is no pathology.The virus is a prophage at this stage. The virus binds to bacteria (host).The virus inserts its DNA into the bacteria. The viral DNA gets incorporated into the cell's chromosome. Viral DNA is replicated along with chromosomal material.
g. A virulent and a temperate phage
Virulent phages: Have only lytic lifecycles and thus infection results in the host cell's death (due to lytic cell destruction-the phage replicates itself and then bursts the cell, releasing many copies).
Temperate phages: refers to the life cycle some phages are able to perform. A temperate phage can integrate its genome into its host bacterium's...