Two Unidirectional Guest Counters
Muhammad Shaheed D. Ibrahim
Kevin Richard R. Miraflores
Leocarl M. Viñalon
TABLE OF CONTENTS
II. Table of Contents2
III. Chapter 1: Introduction3
i. Background of Study3
iii. Significance of Study3
iv. Scope and Limitations4
IV. Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature5
ii. PIC 16F877A5
iii. 4 MHz Crystal Oscillator7
iv. Light Dependent Resistors7
viii. 7-segment anode9
V. Chapter 3: Materials and Methodology10
iv. Circuit Diagram15
VI. Chapter 4: Results and Discussion19
VII. Chapter 5: Conclusion20
I. Background of the Study
At the very moment, automation has really become part of everyone’s daily lives and its uses vary from a wide range of applications; may it be in business, engineering, agriculture, and even in household levels.
Counters are devices which stores (and sometimes displays) the number of times a particular event or process has occurred. One common example of this are guest counters in the entrance and exit passes in a shopping mall. This feature is very important for the marketing/sales department when it wishes to keep track of the sales figure for a specified period of time since the number of visitors entering the establishment tells something about the sales figure. In line with this, the researchers wanted to incorporate this device with automatic light controllers by designing a project that combines the feature of both automated devices. In other words, the researchers aim to make a controller based model that counts separately the number of persons entering and leaving an area and accordingly light up the area when one person is inside it.
II. Significance of the Study
This study is significant because the device that will be developed offers a wide variety of applications. This device proves to be helpful because of the following reasons: 1. It can be used in various rooms like seminar hall, conference room, study rooms in colleges, gymnasiums, etc. where the capacity of room is limited and should not be exceeded. 2. If one wants to know the number of people present in room so as not to have congestion.
And so, the researchers of this project wanted to model a prototype that shows how easy to design and install such device.
The general objective of this project is to design a circuit, with a PIC (Peripheral Interface Controller) in it, that sensed an object that passes through a beam of light (electromagnetic radiation) and in effect, it automatically turns on the light and counts the number of times the light is blocked.
Furthermore, this project aims to create a model showing a particular application of the circuit. In this project, it would be the entrance and exit passes in a shopping mall.
IV. Scope andLimitations
This project is only limited to counting nine persons in the entrance and exit, but it is always applicable to use few seven segment displays for higher number of counting. This is for experimental purposes only. The LDR and laser sensor are time dependent. Obstructing the laser beam for a few seconds makes increments in the counting. Discrepancies in the number of entrance and exit will arise. Since the output voltage of port E is limited, LEDs that will automatically light up are also limited to a few numbers....