Augustus: Establishment of the Principate

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Establishment of the Principate: Booklet 1
Impact of the death of Caesar

Government of Rome, under the republic:
Senate governed Rome

Corsus Honorum- political ladder of offices
Consul

Praetor
Political offices voted for by public
Aedile

Quaestor

Army services- 10 years
Impact on Octavian:
Treated him like a son, groomed him as heir, military experience •Danger to O after death, assassinated for his dictatorial behaviour •When he found out, he didn’t go to Rome straight away (danger) wen to Italy •In will, O had been named heir

A.H.M jones- no danger to Oct only wanted to rid Rome of Caesar •Return to Rome for inheritance
Reinforced position by raising two legions (5000 each)- veterans of retired Caesar, loyalty and closeness. Needs to match to C and show why C made him heir (prove himself) •We don’t know how he was feeling, but though that ‘a furious hatred for the murderers of his beloved… great uncle’. When he was heir must have a duty of vengeance •Felt robbed of the hopes of a career under C patronage

As Caesar’s son he commanded support from soldiers and veterans •Frosty reception from Antony, who denied access to C fortune. O borrowed money to pay off C bequest to the Roman people and celebrate games → increase pop. •Filial piety = loyalty to father, family and ancestors

The games coinage with image of comet which confirms Caesar’s divine status → made Oct ‘divus filius’ → son of god

Impact on Rome:
Upset, C was pop by Rome
Initially calm, C assassins expected normal government to resume. Antony and Marcus Lepidus remained untouched •Assassins perceived him as dictator and threat to republic. After Rome was sent into turmoil for murdered, who had no future plans and though death would lead to restorations of the republic •David Shotter- meant little more than the nobility would be free to resume their self- indulgent lifestyle •Left a power vacuum in Rome

Political support- situation was unstable one side there were the supporters of the conspirators against Caesar, on the other side there were Caesar’s men (M+A) who had the people and the majority of the tribunes behind them. •The question remained- what was to be done about murderers of Julius Caesar? Early Career of Octavian:

Gaius Octavian was born on the 24th September 63BC into a wealthy and respected family •Mother Atia, niece of Julius Caesar
She later married th aristocratic L.Marcius Philippus who proved to be a good step father to Oct providing the young boy with a solid if rather old-fashioned education •When 11 he gave a speech at his grandmother’s, Julia, funeral •Caesar was impressed with the boy’s abilities had him elected to the college of pontiffs and allowed him to take part in his African triumph when Oct was only 16 •He was a dedicated boy who suffered bouts of illness throughout his life. •Sickness prevented him from going to Spain in 46, accompanying Caesar •Although he soon followed even though still not feeling well •Caesar was impressed and was from then made his will in favour of Oct •In preparation of his planning for the campaign against the Parthians, Caesar appointed Oct to his staff and sent him to Macedonia to complete his education and also receive military training •O took with him a friend, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, who until his death in 12BC was to remain O’s loyal friend and supporter Oct attempts to secure his inheritance:

Didn’t know that he was heir until returning from Italy •Parents suggested that he shouldn’t accept but he not only accepted, but changed hi name to Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus •He now had to aims:

Avenge his father’s death
Prove himself worthy of such a father
As he moved around Italy, C veterans and friends welcomed him – he would have to be cautious to meet his ends •Cicero did not trust him, he wrote in a letter to Atticus; “… there are too many...
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