1- Compare and contrast the Direct Method and the Audio-Lingual Method. (1) Both are oral-based approaches.
(2) The Direct Method emphasizes vocabulary acquisition through exposure to its use in situations; the Audio-Lingual Method drills students in the use of grammatical sentence patterns.
(3) Unlike the Direct Method, the Audio-Lingual Method has a strong theoretical base in linguistics and psychology.
2- How has the behavioral psychology influenced the Audio-Lingual Method? (1) It was thought that the way to acquire the sentence patterns of the target language was through conditioning—helping learners to respond correctly to stimuli through shaping and reinforcement.
(2) Learners could overcome the habits of their native language and form the new habits required to be target language speakers.
3- Define a backward build-up drill (expansion drill). State its purpose and advantages.
(1) Definition: The teacher breaks down a line into several parts. The students repeat a part of the sentence, usually the last phrase of the line. Then, following the teacher's cue, the students expand what they are repeating part by part until they are able to repeat the entire line. The teacher begins with the part at the end of the sentence (and works backward from there) to keep the intonation of the line as natural as possible. This also directs more student attention to the end of the sentence, where new information typically occurs.
(2) Purpose: The purpose of this drill is to break down the troublesome sentence into smaller parts.
(3) Advantages: (a) The teacher is able to give the students help in producing the troublesome line. (b) Having worked on the line in small pieces, the students are also able to take note of where each word or phrase begins and ends in the sentence. 4- Define a repetition drill.
Students are asked to listen carefully to the teacher's model, and then they have to repeat and attempt to mimic the...