12 Tone Music Arnold Schoenberg
• A reaction against late romanticism
• Dosent completely abandon the ideas
• 12 note ordered series – becomes the basis of the entire composition. ALL 12 pitches of the chromatic scale. Equal tempered scale = each semitone is of equal distance
• “dodecaphony” can also deal with non serial atonal music
• Berg and Webern were his pupils who took up serialism who came up from the 2nd Viennese school .
• Analog – very basic to tonality
• No structure: all pitches treated equally and as if they are only related to themselves and not a tonic key.
• Late romantic composers really took tonality to it’s most.
• Serialism: sequentialism
• Well tempered clavier – first work that standardizes our tuning system
• Double augmented 4th = perfect 5th
• Other elements:
• Rhythm - duration
• Tempo – speed levels
• Dynamics – degrees of loudness
• Articulation – modes of attack
• Density – number of parts
• Spacing – octave distribution
• Timbre – tone color
❖ Initial pitch series is transformed by some rational method intp an order of values applicable to the other serially controlled parameters
❖ Procedures vary from compser to composer and from work to work, but possibility that have been used include deriving the values of the other series from the ntoes, intervals, and frequencies of the pitch series.
❖ Another procedure is to establish an independent arbitrary order for each serially controlled aspect of the music
❖ To avoid excessive uniformity of configuration that might result from strict ordering of several parameters concurrently, order within a given series is sometimes subjected to systematic and progressive rotation
Compositional process begins with
i. Composer’s determination of the various...