Astronomy Study Guide: Characteristics of Terrestrial and Jovian Planets

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Astronomy Study Guide
1. Know and be able to list the differences between terrestrial and jovian planets. a. Terrestrial Planets
i. Mercury
ii. Venus
iii. Earth
iv. Mars
b. Characteristics of Terrestrial Planets
v. Small
vi. Rocky
vii. Very close to the Sun
viii. Have few moons
ix. Have no rings
c. Jovian Planets
x. Jupiter
xi. Saturn
xii. Uranus
xiii. Neptune
d. Characteristics of Jovian Planets
xiv. Large
xv. Gaseous
xvi. Far from sun
xvii. Many moons
xviii. Rings
xix. All jovian planets have strong winds and storms 2. Be able to describe the different stages in stellar evolution and which star will end their lives in which ways. Included in this is the maximum masses of stars that will become white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes and the maximum masses of white dwarfs and neutron stars. e. Step 1- Becoming a Star

xx. As a cloud collapses, the center becomes very, very hot and very dense f. Step 2- Fusion
xxi. As the gas cloud collapses, the core becomes hotter and the density inside the core increases xxii. Eventually, the temperature and density reach a point where nuclear fusion can occur g. Step 3- Balance: all main sequence stars are in hydrostatic equilibrium xxiii. Fusion provides radiation that creates an outward pressure h. Protostar to Main Sequence

xxiv. A protostar contracts and heats until the core temperature is sufficient for hydrogen fusion i. Upper Limit on a Star’s Mass
3. Understand everythi9ng about the HR diagram and how it can be used j. Identifies a definite relationship between temperature and absolute magnitude k. The smallest stars are the tiny white dwarfs and are found in the lower left corner of the diagram l. Main sequence stars span a range of sizes from the small found in the lower right and the large found in the upper left m. Largest stars are the giant and supergiant stars which are sound in the upper right corner n. Most stars fall somewhere on the main sequence

o. Diagram Depicts
xxv. Temperature
xxvi. Color
xxvii. Spectral Type
xxviii. Luminosity
xxix. Radius
4. Be able to describe the Doppler effect and indicate which stars are shifts the most from looking at the spectra of stars and from looking at the wavelength of peak radiation. p. The Doppler effect is able to determine the movement of objects in space. It can tell if the object is moving toward or away from earth. 5. What are the different types of galaxies and what are the different types and ages of stars that you would expect to observe in each q. Spiral

xxx. Disk- stars of all ages, and many gas clouds
xxxi. Bulge- old stars, few gas clouds
xxxii. Halo- old stars, few gas clouds
1. Blue-White color indicates ongoing star formation 2. Red-Yellow color indicates older star population xxxiii. Barred Spiral Galaxy- has a bar of stars across the bulge xxxiv. Centicular Galaxy- has a disk like a spiral but much less dusty gas(intermediate between spiral and elliptical) r. Elliptical

xxxv. All spherical components, virtually no disk component 3. Red-Yellow color indicates older star population s. Irregular
xxxvi. Neither spiral nor elliptical
4. Blue-White indicates ongoing star formation
5. All tend to be really far away
t. *Spiral galaxies are often found in groups
6. Use energy output vs. wavelength graphs to determine the size temperature and color of various stars. 7. Be able to choose the most cost effective option from a list of possible research...
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