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Assignment No. 1

Submitted To: MAM.SAIRA AFRIDI Submitted by: Ahmad Ullah

Semester: 3rd SUbject: PSYCHOLOGY
Department: Management

A wide range of research methods are used in psychology. These methods vary by the sources of information that are drawn on, how that information is sampled, and the types of instruments that are used in data collection. Methods also vary by whether they collect qualitative data, quantitative data or both.

Qualitative psychological research is where the research findings are not arrived at by statistical or other quantitative procedures. Quantitative psychological research is where the research findings result from mathematical modeling and statistical estimation or statistical inference. Since qualitative information can be handled as such statistically, the distinction relates to method, rather than the topic studied.

There are three main types of psychological research:
Co relational research
Descriptive research
Experimental research
The following are common research designs and data collection methods: •Archival research
Case study
Computer simulation (modeling)
Research in psychology has been conducted with both animals and human subjects: •Animal research
Human subject research
Research designs vary according to the period(s) of time over which data is collected: •Retrospective cohort study: Subjects are chosen, then data is collected on their past experience. •Prospective cohort study: Subjects are recruited prior to the proposed independent effects being administered or occurring. •Cross-sectional study, in which a population sampled on all proposed measures at one point in time. •Longitudinal study: Subjects are studied at multiple time points: May address the cohort effect and indicate causal directions of effects.

Watching the behavior of humans or animals in a natural environment. The researcher does not manipulate variables and does not interfere with things - they try to remain inconspicuous. Examples:
1.Rosenthal (1973): Pseudo patients admitted to psychiatric hospitals and treatment by hospital staff observed. 2.Lorenz (1937): Famous studies on imprinting in animals.
In participant observation the observer acts as part of the group being watched. DESIGNING NATURALISTIC OBSERVATIONS
You will need to be systematic, observations may be either structured or unstructured. Structured observation: Uses tables of pre-determined categories of behavior and systematic sampling. Ways of sampling in structured observational studies:

Time sampling: Observations may be made at regular time intervals and coded. Event sampling: Keep a tally chart of each time a type of behavior occurs. Point sampling: Focus on one individual at a time for set period of time. Unstructured observations: Record everything that happens. It may be difficult to avoid bias by focusing on what you want or expect to see happening, in theory all observations are noted as anything could prove to be important. May use a diary method to record events, feelings, or moods. Video recording: This is useful as behavior may be analyzed in more detail later. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF NATURALISTIC OBSERVATIONS

Strengths:Weaknesses:
More natural behavior occurs if people are unaware of observation.Observer may affect behavior if detected. Studying of animals that cannot be observed in captivity.Difficult to replicate - cannot control extraneous variables. Study of situations that cannot be observed in artificially set up.Need for more than one observer. Case studies are in-depth investigations of a single person, group, event or community. Typically data are gathered from a variety of sources and by using several...
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