(Lecturer: Ahmad Munir, Ph. D)
Presented by :
2. SAKEUS SURBAKTI
3. USWATUN HASANAH
POST GRADUATE PROGRAM
ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE STUDY PROGRAM
SURABAYA STATE UNIVERSITY
PRINCIPLE AND CLASSROOM PRACTICES
Not many centuries ago, writing was a skill that was the exclusive domain of scribes and scholar I educational or religious institution. Almost every aspect of everyday life for “common” people was carried out orally. Business transaction, records, legal documents, political and military agreements- all were written by specialist whose vocation it was to render language into the written word. Today, the ability to write has became indispensable in our global literate community. ASSESSMENT OF WRITING
As you consider assessing students’ writing ability, as usual you need to be clear about your objectives or criterions. What is you want to test: handwriting ability? Correct spelling? Writing sentences that are grammatically correct? Paragraph construction? Logical development of a main idea? Or other possible objectives.
Before looking at specific task, we must scrutinize the different genres of written language (so that context and purpose are clear), types of writing (so that stages of the development of writing ability are accounted for), and micro-and-macroskills of writing (so that objectives can be pinpointed precisely). GENRE OF WRITING
1. Academic writing: paper and general subject report, essay, composition, academically focused journal, short-answer test responses, technical report (e,g. lab report), theses, dissertations. 2. Job-related writing: messages (e.g. phone messages), letters/emails, memos (e.g. interoffice), reports (e.g. job evaluation, project reports), schedules, labels, signs, advertisements, announcements, manuals. 3. Personal writing: letters, emails, greeting cards, invitations, messages, notes, calendar entries, shopping lists, reminders, financial documents (e.g. checks, tax forms, loan application), form, questionnaires, medical reports, immigration documents, diaries, personal journals, fictions (e.g. short story, poetry). TYPES OF WRITING PERFORMANCE
1. Imitative. To produce written language, the learner must attain skills in the fundamental, basic tasks of writing letters, words, punctuation, and very brief sentences. 2. Intensive (controlled). Appropriate vocabulary within a context, collocation and idioms, and correct grammatical features up to the length of a sentence. 3. Responsive. Connecting sentences into paragraph and creating a logically connected sequences of 2 or 3 paragraph. 4. Extensive. It implies successful management of all process and strategies of writing for all purposes. MICRO AND MACROSKILLS OF WRITING
The microskills apply more appropriately to imitative and intensive types of writing task, while the macroskills are essential for the successful mastery of responsive and extensive writing. DESIGNING ASSESSMENT TASK: IMITATIVE WRITING
Beginning level learners, from young children to older adults, need basic training in and assessment of imitative writing: the rudiments of forming letters, words, and simple sentences.
1. TASKS IN (HAND) WRITING LETTERS, WORDS, AND PUNCTUATION
2. A FEW TYPES OF TASKS COMMONLY USED TO ASSESS A PERSON’S ABILITY TO PRODUCE WRITTEN LETTERS OR SYMBOLS
1. Copying: There is nothing innovative or modern about directing a test-taker to copy letters or words. Handwriting letters, words, and punctuation marks. The test-takers reads: copy the following words in the spaces given: bitbetbatbutOh?Oh!
2.Listening cloze selection tasks: These tasks combine dictation with a written...