A Case Study
BSN 3-3 Group 7A
Aspiration pneumonia is the inflammation of the lungs and airways to the lungs (bronchial tubes) from breathing in foreign material. Aspiration pneumonia occurs when foreign materials (usually food, liquids, vomit, or fluids from the mouth) are breathed into the lungs or airways leading to the lungs. This may lead to:
* A collection of pus in the lungs (lung abscess)
* Swelling and inflammation in the lung
* A lung infection (pneumonia)
Risk factors for aspiration or breathing in of foreign material into the lungs are: * Being less alert due to medicines, illness, or other reasons * Coma
* Disorders of the esophagus, the tube that moves food from the mouth to the stomach (esophageal stricture, gastroesophageal reflux) * Drinking large amounts of alcohol
* Medicine to put you into a deep sleep for surgery (general anesthesia) * Old age
* Poor gag reflex in people who are not alert (unconscious or semi-conscious) after a stroke or brain injury * Problems with swallowing
Acidic material that is breathed into the lungs can cause severe lung injury. However, it may not necessarily lead to pneumonia.
Symptoms of this disease are:
* Bluish discoloration of the skin caused by lack of oxygen * Chest pain
* With foul-smelling phlegm (sputum)
* With sputum containing pus or blood
* With greenish sputum
* Shortness of breath
Some people may need to be hospitalized. Treatment depends on the severity of the pneumonia. You may receive antibiotics, which treat bacteria. Some people may get special antibiotics to treat bacteria that live in the mouth. The type of bacteria that caused the pneumonia depends on:
* Your health
* Where you live (at home or in a long-term nursing facility, for example) * Whether you've recently been hospitalized
* Recent antibiotic use
You may need to have your swallowing function tested. Patients who have trouble swallowing may need to use other feeding methods to reduce the risk of aspiration.
Aspiration can occur regardless of sex, age group, or ethnicity. True incidence of aspiration pneumonia is difficult to assess because many cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) or hospital-acquired pneumonia are probably the result of aspiration that was undiagnosed. However, some studies suggest that aspiration pneumonia may be the cause of as many as 5% to 15% of CAP cases. It occurs most commonly in older people in hospitals and nursing homes, especially those with swallowing dysfunction, impaired mental status, neurological diseases, or mechanical impairment of the digestive tract. It is the most common cause of death among patients with swallowing dysfunction related to neurological disease.
Name: Patient E
Address: Santolan, Pasig City
Date of Birth: December 25, 1917
Civil Status: Married
Religion: Roman Catholic
Occupation: Retired Seaman
Educational attainment: College undergraduate
Admitting Diagnosis: T/C Community Acquired Pneumonia
Final Diagnosis: Aspiration Pneumonia, Malnutrition
Chief Complaint: Thick secretions, Poor appetite
History of Present Illness:
Two weeks prior to admission, patient had a very poor appetite, productive cough with foul smelling, greenish sputum and hyperthermia. 1 week prior to admission, patient was confined at a hospital in Santolan, but after five days was transferred to Lung Center of the Philippines because the hospital cannot provide proper medical management due to lack of facilities.
Past Health History:
According to the patient’s wife, the patient was hospitalized before several times due to cough and fever. Patient was diagnosed to have glaucoma when he was 65 years old, but...
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