Chapter 13 Review
A. Describe the influence of Chinese culture on Heian Japan.
In the Taika and Nara, Japanese peaked in their selective borrowing from Chinese culture. In 646, the Japanese tried to introduce the Taika Reforms, to change the imperial administration to resemble the Chinese(thought it had little effect in Heian Period).Previously, Japanese scholars tried mastering Chinese characters and wrote dynastic histories like those used by emperors in China. In the Heian period, Japanese consciousness grew and Chinese influence was reduced to a minimum.
B. Describe Court Life during the Heian period
Court Life during the Heian period is like the life of elites in America. Social status was most important, love affairs were common, and gossip was abundant. The members of imperial households and leading aristocratic families lived in a complex of palaces and gardens which the Japanese saw as most appealing. There were artificial lakes and fine gardens in every courtiers living quarters. Writing verse and poems were valued art types and were full of Japanese Classics and Chinese allusions.
C. What led to the decline of imperial power within Japan?
While the emperor was goofing off, aristocratic families were trying to run the imperial bureaucracy and create the most influence. One of them, the Fujiwara held quite a bit of influence over the imperial affairs, with many members of their family in the upper administration as well as increased marriage of Fujiwaras into the imperial family. All these aristocratic families whittled down imperial control and replaced it with their control. Buddhist monasteries tried to do rise in power as well, creating secret texts and ceremonies to bring cooperation between them and the court aristocrats.
D. How did the rise of provincial warrior elites change Japanese Institutions?
The rise of provincial warrior elites drastically changed Japanese institutions. As the imperial government gradually lost control, elite families created small fortresses where the Bushi, warrior leaders created a mini state inside. This created much crime and conflict, which in turn created a new warrior class, the samurai. The samurai lived by a code of family honor and death rather than defeat. All these factors created a feudal type order that replaced the weakened imperial administration. E. Describe social, political, and economical institutions during the Bafuku Age.
The Bafuku Age was a military government that was established by the Minamoto after they defeated the Taira house. The leader of Minamoto after the victory was an unfit leader who weakened the Minamoto power. After a few equally bad successors, the Minamoto was dominated by the Hojo family who was content with allowing the Minamoto to be the face of the formal rulers. This created a three tiered system where the Hojo had real power, and manipulated the Minamoto who claimed to rule in the name of the emperor at Kyoto. In early 14th century the Minamoto tried to replace the Kamukura regime with their own regime, resulting in conflicts with the exiled emperor and the Minamoto. After this, civil and political strife was rampant and the collapse of centralized authority led to more conflict which ended with a division of Japan into many little kingdoms.
F. To what extent did Vietnam and Korea accept and reject Chinese influences?
The Koreans were able to resist Chinese control in the beginning, but after the fall of the Han and Koguryo, a wave of sinification began. Buddhism was the link between China and Korea and the Koreans adored the Buddhist art and buildings. Chinese writing and a unified law code like that of Han China was introduced. Universities were established so Korean youths could try learning the Confucian classics. The ruler tried to establish a Chinese style bureaucracy not unlike the Taika Reforms, but was rejected by the noble families and thus never...
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