Art History Study Notes

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Art Hist. Review
Ancient Greek Art and Arch. (600 BCE-30 BCE)
The Early Classical Period 480-450 BCE

5.23 KRITIOS BOY Acropolis, Athens 480 BCE
-Marble
-He is self confident and serious looking
-He is a sculpture in the round
-The artist is believed to be KRITIOS
-The statue has an S-curve to him and is in the contrapposto pose, which is when artists use tension and relaxation around the central axis of the body to increase to muscular tension and enhance the musculature of a body. It is shown here because his weight is all on the left foot, causing his hip to jut out. His right knee is slightly bent and he has a slight drop in his shoulders. -The artist also made a point to have his head slightly turned to hint that the viewer should take in the entirety of the piece.

High Classical Period 450-400 BCE

5.29 ACROPOLIS, ATHENS 447-432 BCE
-In the High classical period which only lasted a half-century and set the standards for art and architecture. There was also turmoil between the Spartans and the Athenians in this time period which was referred to as the Peloponnesian War. -“Acro” means high and “polis” means city.

-The Acropolis of Athens was once considered a fortress and sanctuary but was later turned into a religious and ceremonial centre for Athena the cities patron and protector. -It was destroyed by Persian troops in 480 BCE and was going to be left and a memorial site of ruins but Perikles convinced them to rebuild it.

5.31 Parthenon, Acropolis Athens 447-432 BCE
-KALLIKRATES AND IKTINOS
-Pantelic Marble
-Has the pediment, frieze, triglyph, metope, architrive, abacus, mechinus and necking -Athens, Corinth and Sparta.
-Depicted gods and goddesses who they believed were immortal and supernatural -Sanctuaries for gods and goddesses in form of outdoor alters---replaced by temples integrated into natural site -temples decorated with ceramic sculptures

-mathematical proportions which artists use to convey structure and order 4:9 ratio 4x2+1 -human values of truth virtue and harmony
-High classical period
-plain capital
-temple dedicated to Athena
-stylobate floor columns rest on and stereobate foundation itself -post and lintel system
-entasis columns slightly swell in the middle
-Doric order plain capitals
-peace, prosperity and power through the building projects
-transport wood, gold, marble and ivory
-sculptures celebrate the Greek victory over Persians

5.32 EAST PEDIMENT OF THE PARTHENON 447-432 BCE (ATHENS)
- High Classical period 450-400 BCE
-Sculpture in the round filled both pediments of the Parthenon -illustrated the birth of Athena, fully grown and clad in armor, from the brow of her father Zeus. -The statues from the west pediment are the best preserved of the two. -besides Zeus and the newborn Athena are three goddesses followed by a single reclining male figure who could be Diomysos or Herakles. - In the left corner was Helios (sun god) in his horse-drawn chariot rising from the sea and to the right the moon god Selene descends in her chariot to the sea. -The running female figure in the center is Iris the messenger of the gods.

P.G. 134 SPEAR BEARER (DORYPHOROS) 450-440 BCE (NAPLES)
-POLYKLEITOS
-Marble
-developed canon of proportions system of measurement used to determine the proportions of the body -contropposto pose is balance and counterbalance one foot bearing weight and one not bearing the weight. In this case his right foot is the one bearing all the weight of his body while the left foot is relaxed. -It is said to be the hero Achilles

-Theorists believed that the basic unit was the length of the figures index finger or the width of the figures hand across the knuckles; others think it was the height of the head from chin to hairline. -S-curve

-High classical period
-spear bearer, idealized, exaggerated

The Late Classical Period 400-323 BCE

5.46 MAN SCRAPING HIMSELF (APOXYOMENOS) 350-325 (VATICAN)
-LYSIPPOS
-Marble sculpture
-Done in the late...
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