1. Introduction (Alissa)
aracteristic of early Gothic churches.
- Very simple
- Very thin vertical support
- Large windows
- Combination of the triforium gallery and clerestory in one large area - Walls of glass and screens oHow did the term ‘Gothic’ come about? The term was actually applied after the time by Italian writers in the Renaissance who, compared this architecture to that of the "barbaric tribes" that destroyed the Roman Empire and its culture in 5th Century BCE. They were appalled at the abandonment of classical Romanesque lines and proportion which they felt was true beauty.
2. Timeline (Alissa)
- By the 12th and 13th centuries there was a massive shift in population in Europe. - People moved from the outskirts and countryside to towns, which grew into vast cities. - Cathedrals became a very important religious, cultural and social center everywhere. - They replaced monasteries and schools and learning centers, places where the community would come to meet and a place to get close to God. - It was a time for new ideas and knowledge and this freedom emerged gothic art. - A) 1140- Gothic style was born at the Cathedral of Saint-Denis. · Artist: Abbot Suger (which Kailas will expand on a little later in our presentation). · He started this movement of gothic architecture, which expands and grows in France, Spain, England and even a bit in Germany and Italy. - B) 1150- Paris’ first university is constructed.
· University of Paris (1150-1970)
· Matthew Paris, a Benedictine monk, did his teaching study there in 1170. · Pope Innocent III completed his studies there in 1182.
· It becomes Europe’s leading center of liberal arts and religion. · This attracts bishops and architects to experiment with architectural forms and build larger churches and cathedrals. - C) 1284- Collapse of 64-meter-high vault of Cathedral of Saint-Pierre-Beauvais. · By 120’s cathedrals were becoming more vast, following the goal of an architect at the time which was to build a very tall structure and preserve as much natural light as possible. · Its vaulting collapsed due to weakness in structure because its height was much greater than its width, and the buttresses were too thin, and wouldn’t cope with the region’s high winds. · It was rebuilt, but this event marked the technical limits of gothic architecture. - D) 1180- Phillip Augustus becomes King of France.
· By this time there was a spreading of vaults, ribs, columns, pilasters and stained glass. · Gothic architecture was becoming more popular and is characteristics were developing - E) 1210-1250- Elaborate programs of stained glass windows all over France. · Artists at Chartres, start to elaborate on stained glass windows in cathedrals under construction there. · Stained glass depicted religious figures, but now it was starting to show more scenes of tradesmen and everyday life, since churches and cathedrals were becoming a more social place where the community meets. - F) 1226- Louis IX becomes King.
· Grandson of Philip Augustus
· Very religious man and a firm protector of the university and the arts, making Paris a thriving cultural center. · Paris becomes the heart for production of all precious arts (e.g. manuscript illustration, ivory carving, and goldsmith’s work) · Paris becomes an iconic city on the global scale.
- G) 1328- Philip VI comes to the trone.
- H) 1348- the Black Death kills 1/3 of the French population. · First hit in the East (Mesopotamia, Syria)
· 1347- 1351- it kills about 25-50% of all Europe.
4) Suger and Characteristics (Kailas)
Here we have the Basilica de St Denis, the birthplace of the Gothic, thanks to Suger who was the Abbot for the first half of the twelfth century.(abbot- head of an abbey of monks.) This church is incredibly important...