7-The Industrial Age from art theory for beginners
Why did the Agricultural and Industrial
it began with the huge changes in society Revolution begin?
brought about by developments made in
Agriculture, technology and industry.
Where did the Agricultural and Industrial
it began in Britain and spread to Europe Revolution begin?
What was the end result in Europe?
-it changed the way people lived
-Europe moved from essentially an agrarian
society to an industrial one in a matter of a few
What did the developments in Europe
these developments fueled both the Romantic lead to?
Movements and the birth of the Modern Age.
John Ruskin (1819-1900)
-was the most notable critic of the British
-he wrote about art, architecture and politics, but
he originally wanted to be a poet.
Who did Ruskin follow and what was
-Ruskin followed Locke’s position of the dualism his philosophy?
of mind and body and believed that art should
express the noble ideas of man and G-d.
-Ruskin saw nature as a supreme divine idea and
therefore a key to meaningful art.
What horrified Ruskin most during the
Ruskin was horrified by the injustice caused by the Industrial Revolution?
changes in society brought about by industrialization
and was an early advocate of socialism.
What did Ruskin get out of the
Ruskin sees art as essentially a moral act which The Stones of Venice (1851-1853)?
corresponds to the moral state of society, and the need
to react to it.
What did Ruskin urge Britain to do?
Ruskin urged them to rediscover the Gothic.
What did Ruskin see in Gothic art?
-Ruskin saw Gothic art as more passionate, and
able to express a greater spectrum of emotion, than
Renaissance Art and this led to the Victorian Gothic
-Ruskin believed that the lack of mechanization in
Gothic art and architecture produced a richer form of
What means of communication did
he circulated his ideas widely in a pamphlet, The Ruskin use to get his ideas to others?
Nature of the Gothic, that was published at the newly
formed London Working Men’s College.
-this group of artists turned against Neoclassicism
and the academic art being taught at Sir Joshua
Reynolds Royal Academy in London.
What did the Pre-Raphaelites do?
-They sought to return to the type of art before Raphael,
a return to nature, and a purer approach to art.
-they traced back the academic tradition of arts to
Raphael and the High Renaissance.
What did Pre-Raphaelite paintings contain?
-They often contained foliage and flowers, in wonderful
-their paintings were bright and colorful, and
reminiscent of earlier pre-Renaissance art.
How did the Pre-Raphaelite’s dress their
they did not dress their models up in semi-Classical models?
robes, as the Neoclassicists did, but rather in
contemporary or real clothing, or even in the historical
dress of the English Medieval period.
Why were the Pre-Raphaelite’s drawn to
-they were drawn to Medievalism because they saw it Medievalism?
as the last great flowering of art, when art interwove
perfectly with nature, Christian morality, and
humanism, their great beliefs.
-their paintings and ideas received a lot of criticism
Charles Dickens (1810-1870)
thought the use of medieval poses was utterly absurd
thought the use of medieval poses was wonderful
refers to a realistic rather than idealized veiw of the
What was the theory of Realism about?
Was a theory of art that wanted to speak of social
conditions, of the truth about work, and of the
mundanity of everyday life.
What did Realism...
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