Arabic Grammar Notes

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  • Topic: Grammatical number, Present tense, Noun
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Jihad’s Arabic Grammar Notes

The ‘alif-ba’According to My Transliteration:
aa, b, t, th, j, H, kh, d, dh, r, z, s, sh, S, D, T, TH, `(this is not ’, but the thing on the left of my ‘1’ key), rh, f, q, k, l, m, n, h, w (or oo), y (or ee). ‘fatHatun’: a; ‘Dammatun’: u; ‘kasratun’: i; ‘shaddatun’: xx; ‘tanweenun’: I add a ‘n’ to the ‘harakatun’; ‘hamzatu-l’qaTa`i’: I just write the ‘harakatun’ or a ‘ ‘ ’ when necessary; ‘hamzatu-l’waSli’ (when not pronounced): -x’; (when pronounced): same as ‘hamzatu-l’qaTa’i’.

Three Kinds of Words in Arabic:
Verb Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Adverb Letter, Particle

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Note: The singular ‘ismun’ has a ‘hamzatu-l’waSli’, but not the plural.

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Vowels:

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Moon Letters:

Sun Letters:

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A good mnemonic: the Sun Letters contain all pairs (but not triples) - except ‘a`ynun’ and ‘rhaynun’ - and ‘noonun’ (when the sun shines) and ‘lamun’ (two ‘sukoons’ in a row). When a word beginning with a definite ‘alif lam’ is immediately followed by a Sun Letter, the ‘lamun’ is not pronounced. Instead, the ‘alifun’ (a ‘hamzatu-l’waSli’) combines together with the Sun Letter, which takes a ‘shaddatun’ (e.g. ‘alHuroofu-l’shamsiyyatu’ becomes ‘alHuroofu-sh’shamsiyyatu’). Moon Letters pronounce the ‘lamun’.

Two Kinds of ‘hamzatun’:
‘hamzatu-l’waSli’ (The “Silent” ‘hamzatun’)

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This ‘hamzatun’ prefers, in conversation, to remain silent unless it is forced to speak. The ‘waSli’ sign (a ‘Sadun’ over the ‘alifun’) is only written when the ‘hamzatun’ is not pronounced – otherwise, just write the ‘alifun’ with ‘harakaatun’. This ‘hamzatun’ connects between words (e.g. ‘hamzatu al-waSli’ becomes ‘hamzatu-l’waSli’). It is always present (though not always written) on the definite ‘alif lam’. It is only pronounced when it begins the sentence. Remember: Arabic doesn’t like two ‘sukoonun’s in a row – but even if you don’t have the ‘sukoonun’s, you still write the letters without the ‘harakaatun’. ‘waSli’ usually changes previous vowel from ‘sukoonun’ into ‘kasratun’. ‘hamzatu-l’qaTa`e’ (The “Outspoken” ‘hamzatun’)

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1

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(lit. ‘the ‘hamza’ of chopping’)

Jihad’s Arabic Grammar Notes

Likes to be heard. Remember: If ‘hamzatun’ is written on ‘alifun’, it is not an ‘alifun’ i.e. not a long vowel. If ‘hamzatun’ is written with no seat after an ‘alifun’, the ‘alifun’ is not its seat – it is a long vowel followed by a ‘hamzatun’.

Interrogative Particles:

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Three (Really Two) Kinds of Nouns:
In Terms of Case Endings

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(lit. seeking to know)

There are two categories: ‘mu`arabun’ and ‘mabniyyun’. Basically, one whose case ending change and one whose case endings don’t change. There is a subcategory of ‘mu`arabun’ called ‘mamnoo`un mina-S’Srfi’ (lit. prohibited from change) which is limited in that it’s only change is from ‘Dammatun’ to ‘fatHatun’. For the record, there are eleven (!) causes for a word to be ‘manSoobun’ and two which cause a word to be ‘majroorun’. (Don’t worry, Jihad said we don’t have to know this.) ‘mu`arabun’

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mamnoo`un mina-S’Srfi (lit. Prohibited from Change)

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Plurals with Four or More Syllables Colors Some Women’s Names Stative This is a subcategory of ‘mu`arabun’. These words only change from a ‘Dammatun’ (or ‘Dammataani’) at the end to a ‘fatHatun’ (or ‘fatHataani’), when ‘manSoobun’, and even when ‘majroorun’. All Broken Plurals with four or more syllables are ‘mamnoo`un mina-S’Sarfi’, but when they are made ‘ma`arifatun’ they lose that status, so can become ‘majroorun’, etc., as the case may be. mabniyyun (lit. built)

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Its case ending is still wearing a hardhat. The case ending never changes for grammatical reasons, but sometimes it does for phonetic reasons – like when attaching pronouns. (Even though it doesn’t change for grammar, it can still be categorized as ‘majroorun’ when preceded by a ‘Harfu-l’jarri’, or as a ‘manSoobun’ when the direct object...
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