Apwh Chapter 18 Notes

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Jingyi Jenny Tan
Period 1 / 12.3.12
Nomadic Empires and Eurasian Integration

Turkish Migrations and Imperial Expansion
- Early Political Organization
o Never formed single group
o Organized in clans/tribes
o Bitter fights with one another
o Turkish clans & identity emerge after breakup of Xiongnu confederation 0-100 CE - Speak related languages
- Nomads or descendants of them

Ghaznavid Empire (977–1186 CE)
- Initially interested only in plunder - gradually interested in permanent rule - Mahmud of Ghazni (971-1030 CE)
o Ghaznavid Turks of Afghanistan in raids of N India o Early 1000s begin plunder
▪ First Punjab
▪ Gujarat
▪ Bengal
o 1200s Turkish Sultanate of Delhi authority over all of N India ▪ Plans to conquer S but failed
o Challenges
▪ Constant challenge from Hindu princes
▪ Periodically protect N frontier from new Turkish or Mongol invaders o Military
▪ Large elephant corps
▪ Enormous army
▪ Hold on empire rather than expand
o Religion
▪ Mahmud of Ghazni hated Buddhism & Hinduism • Frequent raids on shrines, temples, monasteries • Stripped wealth, destroy buildings
• Slaughter residents & attendants
• Encourage conversion to Islam
Saljuq Empire (1000s-1200s CE)
Conquests
- Persian Conquest
o Mid 700s-Mid 900s Turks live mostly on borders of Persia o Mid-Late 900s live in Abbasid
o Mid 1000s overshadow caliphs
o Tughril Beg
▪ 1055 Tughril Beg recognized as sultan by Abbasid caliph ▪ Consolidate hold on Baghdad
▪ Extend to Syria, Palestine & other Persian territory ▪ 200 yrs Abbasid as figureheads of Saljuqs - Byzantine Conquest
o Anatolia rich breadbasket
o Early 1000s Large Seljuk migration into Anatolia
o 1071 Battle of Manzikert – Saljuqs take Byzantine emperor captive after devastating the Byzantine army o Peasants of Anatolia resented Byzantine overlords and looked at Saljuqs as liberators not conquerors o Displace Byzantine authorities & supplant own politics & culture ▪ Levy tax on church

▪ Restrict church activities
▪ Sometimes confiscate church property
o Advance Islam
▪ Political, social, economic opportunities for converts ▪ Defender of Holy Land against crusaders

Turkish Economy and Society
- Expansion
o 900s use military skills for imperial conquest
o Turkish expansion only prelude compared to vast empire of Mongols - Environment
o Nomadic societies adapt conditions of arid lands
o Arid climate limit human development
o Not enough rain to support large scale agriculture - Oases in limited regions
o Settlement few & small, often temporary
o Small scale cultivation millet & vegetables
o Sufficient only to supplement animal food
o Only grasses and shrubs grow
o No large rivers or sources of water
- Herding
o Grazing animals thrive on grass
o Sheep, horses, cattle, goats, camels
o Did not wander aimlessly
o Follow migratory cycles taking account of seasons & local climate conditions - Animal Uses
o Diet – Milk, meat, hides
o Animal bones for tools
o Animal dung as fuel for fires
o Woolen shoes, clothes
o Yurts – woolen tents, collapsible for mobility
o kumiss – Fermented mare’s milk – alcoholic drink - Industry
o Limited pottery, leather goods, iron weapons & tools...
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