Apush Unit 1 Study Guide

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1. General characteristics and conditions of the Native Americans: Where they came from and their cultures. a. Where: 35,000 (33,000?) B.C.: First ‘immigrant’ ancestors of the Native Americans traveled down the Bering land bridge from Eurasia to North America during the Ice Age i. Trekked across Bering isthmus and peopled the Americas for 250 centuries, eventually reaching the southern tip of South America ii. Isolated by the melting of glaciers at the end of the Ice Age (10,000 B.C.) b. Cultures:

iii. Mexican & South American tribes
1. Incas in Peru, Mayans in Central America, Aztecs in Mexico a. Advanced agricultural practices, sophisticated civilizations, far-flung commerce, astronomy, ritual sacrifices 2. Staple crop (developed 5000 B.C.) was corn or maize (Indian corn) b. Foundation of life and the centralized Aztec and Incan nation-states, originated from Mexican heartland c. Nomadic hunting bands became settled agricultural villages d. 1200 B.C.: Reached American Southwest: molded Pueblo culture (irrigation systems, terraced buildings) iv. North and East of Pueblos

3. Mound Builders of Ohio River valley, Mississippian culture of lower Midwest, Anasazi peoples of Southwest e. Cultures declined A.D. 1300
4. Corn cultivation reached these areas considerably later f. No ‘society’, dense concentrations of people, nation-states comparable to Aztecs v. Southeastern Atlantic seaboard region

5. AD 1000: ‘three-sister’ farming: maize (corns), beans, squash g. Rich diet produced high population densities (Creek, Choctaw, Cherokee) vi. Iroquois Confederacy (northeastern woodlands)

6. Developed by Hiawatha
7. Political and organizational skills in a military alliance c. Society:
vii. Small, scattered, impermanent upon European arrival viii. Women: tended crops; Men: hunted, fished, gathered, cleared fields 8. Matrilineal cultures: power and possessions passed down female side ix. Revered ‘spiritual’ nature

2. Causes of European exploration and expansion. (Breakthrough in 15th century) d. Technological advancements: 1450: caravel (sailed along the winds, Portuguese found a route along the coast of Africa), mariner’s compass, printing press (dissemination of knowledge) x. Increase in navigational knowledge and experience e. Competition between rising nation-states (e.g. Spain, England, France, etc.) to expand their spheres of influence xi. Used to be fragmented until monarchs consolidated power 9. Unity, wealth, power to shoulder discovery, conquest, colonization xii. ‘Exporting national identity’: claiming land enhanced the status, wealth, reach of that country xiii. Based on investments, business venture/ imperialism xiv. Dawn of Renaissance 14th century: spirit of ambition, optimism, adventure f. Desire to find an all-water route to the East to supply European markets and break the Italian city-states’ monopoly on European trade xv. Christian crusaders and Marco Polo

g. Belief in European moral and cultural superiority
xvi. Portugal first to develop European slave trade based on the slave trade within Africa itself

3. Accomplishments of the most important European explorers. h. October 12, 1492: Christopher Columbus [Italian sponsored by Spanish] reached West Indies i. 1580: Sir Francis Drake [English]- buccaneer, returns from sea heavily loaded with Spanish booty, netting profit of 4,600% for financial backers including Queen Elizabeth; 1579 landed in San Francisco Bay, circumnavigated the world j. 1497-8: John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto) [English]- explored the northeastern coast of North America...
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