Apush Themes

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CHAPTER 1
Theme: The first discoverers of America, the ancestors of the American Indians, were small bands of hunters who crossed a temporary land bridge from Siberia and spread across both North and South America. They evolved a great variety of cultures, which ranged from the sophisticated urban civilizations in Mexico and Central and South America to the largely semi nomadic societies of North America. Applying evidence-

* Paleo Indians-utilized land bridge as a important hunting tool(nomadic) * Archaic Indians-traditional gathering society
* Woodland Indians- created burial mounds and a society centered around agriculture(maize) * Great societies-Incas, Mayans, Aztecs created advanced civilizations such as Machu Pichu * Anasazi-(southwestern)-cliff dwellers

* Agriculture- the Three Sisters- maize, Beans, Squash(impacted the daily traditional diet) Theme: Europe's growing demand for Eastern luxuries prompted exploration in the hopes of reducing the expense of those goods with new trade routes. Exploration occurred incrementally, beginning with the Portuguese moving around the coast of Africa and establishing trading posts. Awareness of the New World and its wealth pushed exploration across the Atlantic. Spanish exploration continued in the same fashion, first in the Caribbean islands then expanding into South and North America. Applying evidence-

* The Renaissance-ambitious spirit of optimism and adventure sparked and increased interest in the new world * Technological advances- for increased support the advent of the printing press, and the Mariners compass * Christopher Columbus(Spanish)-three ships-Pinta, Nina, Santa Maria.(discovered the Bahamas October 12,1492) * Interdependent global economic system

* Columbian exchange-illustrated globalization (provided raw materials)

Theme: Portuguese and Spanish explorers encountered and then conquered much of the Americas and their Indian inhabitants. This “collision of worlds” deeply affected all the Atlantic societies—Europe, the Americas, and Africa—as the effects of disease, conquest, slavery, and intermarriage began to create a truly “new world” in Latin America, including the borderlands of Florida, New Mexico, and California, all of which later became part of the United States. Applying evidence- Results of Columbian exchange- Guns, Steel, and Germs * Lethal diseases such as Smallpox, Yellow Fever, and Malaria * 90% of the native American population died because of disease * Treaty of Tordesillas- Spain’s claim to Columbus’s discovery * Explorers/Conquistadors-Vasco Nunez, Ferdinand Magellan, Juan Ponce de Leon, Francisco Coronado, Hernando de Soto, Francisco Pizarro, Hernan Cortes * Encomienda- Missionaries

CHAPTER 2
Theme: After a late start, a proud, nationalistic England joined the colonial race and successfully established five colonies along the southeastern seacoast of North America. Although varying somewhat in origins and character, all these colonies exhibited plantation agriculture, indentured and slave labor, a tendency toward strong economic and social hierarchies, and a pattern of widely scattered, institutionally weak settlements. Applying evidence-

* Puritan
* Jamestown(Virginia Company charter) embarrassing attempt with high attrition rates * Captain John Smith, John Rolfe
Theme: The English hoped to follow Spain's example of finding great wealth in the New World, and that influenced the financing and founding of the early southern colonies. The focus on making the southern colonies profitable shaped colonial decisions, including choice of crops and the use of indentured and slave labor. This same focus also helped create economic and cultural ties between the early southern colonies and English settlements in the West Indies. Applying evidence-

* Tobacco and Sugar plantations- created greed for land and slave labor * Political- House of Burgesses(limited democracy)in...
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