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Chapter 1-2:
The Columbian Exchange
The New World had new creatures, plants such as tobacco, maize, beans, tomatoes, and the revolutionary potato. Old World introduced crops and animals cattle, swine, and horses. Columbus brought back seedlings of sugar cane, so there was a “sugar revolution” in the Europeans diet. Europeans also brought seeds, and diseases which had a negative effect. This made up an important part of our society as there was a great exchange of ideas and objects between the old and new worlds, contributing and mixing in together, giving us the diverse society we have now. Conquistadores

From 1519-1540, Spanish conquerors (conquistadores) spread throughout the Americas in search of gold and glory for Spain. Ponce de Leon, Coronado, de Soto, Pizarro, Cortes, and other conquerors spread Spanish religion and culture throughout the Americas. While destroying many civilizations in their wake (Inca and Aztec), the conquistadores set the stage for Spanish colonization and one of the greatest and longest lasting empires of the American continent. The “Black Legend”

The misdeeds of the Spanish in the New World obscured their successes and helped give the idea of the “Black Legend.” This wrong idea said that the conquerers only tortured and killed the Indians (sacrifices for Christ) stole their gold, infected them with diseases, and left everything miserable, but they also made a great empire. This wrong opinion gave way to lasting misjudgments of American history, it was some what true, but not entirely, Spanish helped more than hurt, as the ends justify the means. Sir Walter Raleigh

Raleigh organized an expedition that first landed in 1585 on North Carolina's Roanoke Island. After several false starts, the hapless Roanoke colony mysteriously vanished, swallowed up by the wilderness. Sir Walter Raleigh gave way to other and greater expeditions as he gave the idea of expeditions in search of new things and wealth, and others could and probably did learn from his mistakes. Elizabeth I

Queen Elizabeth encouraged English buccaneers to seek land and promote the twin goals of Protestantism and plunder by seizing Spanish treasure ships and raiding Spanish settlements, even though England and Spain were technically at peace. Queen Elizabeth I led the way in expeditions financially as she was probably the first and greatest financial supporter of expeditions. Joint-stock company

The Virginia Company Charter, pressured colonists to strike it rich on the company's behalf, they still had English rights. The three ships landed near Chesapeake Bay, Indians attacked them, they eventually chose a location near James River, they later called it Jamestown. Encouraged other stock companies to at least try and be brave enough to pursue wealth in other unknown, mysterious, and possibly dangerous areas, it's interesting how they still had rights during this expedition. John Rolfe

John Rolfe, the husband of Pocahontas, became father of the tobacco industry. Very important man giving way to a very important crop that multiple colonies built their economies on. Spanish Armada

Spanish flowtilla, 130 strong, hove into the English Channel. The English sea dogs inflicted heavy damage on Spanish ships. “Protestant wind” scattered the crippled Spanish fleet. End of the Spanish and the beginning of the English. Big transition from Spanish power to English power, it also introduced the important Protestantism. John Smith

“He who shall not work shall eat” Kidnapped for a mock execution by the Indian chieftain Powhatan, whose daughter Pocahontas “saved” Smith. It was supposed to impress Smith with Powhatan's power and with the Indian's desire for peaceful relations with the Virginians. First interracial, and peaceful relation between Virginians and Indians. Jamestown

Died from disease, malnutrition, and starvation. The “gentlemen” were unaccustomed to fending for themselves, they wasted valuable time grubbing for gold when they...
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