AP Exam Vocab
• Cahokia – One of the largest urban centers created by Mississippian people, containing 30,000 residents in 1250. • Transoceanic migrations- a population migration across oceans • Beringia- a subcontinent bridging Asia and North America, named after the Bering Straits. • Athapascan- A people that began to settle the forests in the northwestern area of North America around 5000 B.C.E. • Clovis tradition-A powerful new and sophisticated style of tool making, unlike anything found in the old world • Pleistocene Overkill- Intensified hunting efforts brought on in response to lowered reproduction and survival rates of large animals • Archaic period- the period roughly 10,000 to 2,500 years ago marked by the retreat of glaciers. • Clans- groups of allied families
• Mesoamerica-The region stretching from central Mexico to Central America • Aztecs- A warrior people who dominated the Valley of Mexico from 1100 to 1521 • Rancherias- dispersed settlements of Indian farmers in the southwest • Kachinas – Impersonations of the ancestral spirits by Southwest Indians • Feudalism- A medieval European social system in which land was divided into hundreds of small holdings • Renaissance- The intellectual and artistic flowering of Europe during the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries sparked by a revival of interest in classical antiquity • Reconquista- the long struggle (ending in 1492) during which Spanish Christians reconquered the Iberian peninsula from Muslim occupiers • Treaty of Tordesillas- Treaty negotiated by the pope in 1494 to resolve the territorial claims of Spain and Portugal • Protestant Reformation – Martin Luther’s challenge to the Catholic Church, initiated in 1517, calling for a return to what he understood to be the purer practices and beliefs of the early church • Predestination- the belief that God decided at the moment of Creation which humans would achieve salvation • Protestants- All European supporters of religious reform under Charles V’s Holy Roman Empire • Coureurs de bois – French for “woods runner,” an independent fur trader in New France • Beaver Wars – series of bloody conflicts, occurring between 1640s and 1680s, during which the Iroquois fought the French for control of the fur trade in the east and the Great Lakes region • Virginia Company – A group of London investors who sent ships to Chesapeake Bay in 1607 • House of Burgesses – the legislature of colonial Virginia. First organized in 1619, it was the first institution of representative government in the English colonies • Indentured servants- Individuals who contracted to serve a master for a period of four to seven years in return for payment of the servants passage to America • Puritans – individuals who believed that Queen Elizabeth’s reforms of the Church of England had not gone far enough in improving the church. Puritans led the settlement of Massachusetts Bay Colony • Pilgrims- Settlers of Plymouth Colony, who viewed themselves as spiritual wanderers • Separatists – Members of an offshoot branch of Puritanism. Separatists believed that the Church of England was too corrupt to be reformed and hence were convinced they must “separate” from it to save their souls. • Mayflower Compact – The first document of self-government in North America. • Massachusetts Bay Company – A group of wealthy Puritans who were granted a royal charter in 1629 to settle in Massachusetts Bay • Great Migration – Puritan emigration to North America between 1629 and 1643 • Propriety colony- a colony created when the English monarch granted a huge tract of land to an individual or group of individuals, who became “lords proprietor” • Quakers – Members of the Society of Friends, a radical religious group that arose in the mid- seventeenth century. Quakers rejected formal theology, focusing instead on the Holy Spirit that...
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