Spain in North America
1560s: Spanish give up search for Indian gold. Focus on defending their empire from English (who were plundering treasure ships and Caribbean ports) and French Protestants (who began to settle in Florida though the Spanish had already claimed the land). Spanish establish fort at St. Augustine, Florida (1565) to protect route of the treasure fleet. They also massacre French Protestants. Raids by Native Americans wipe out military outposts and religious missions. 1573: The Comprehensive Order for New Discoveries says that missionaries, not conquistadors, have to pacify the land. Franciscan friars set up missions in Nuevo México (New Mexico) and attack Native Americans. Native Americans do forced labor. 1680: Popé leads revolt, kills 400 Spaniards and forces remaining 1500 to flee to El Paso, and destroys Spanish missions (Pueblo Revolt of 1680). Spaniards return, Native Americans make a deal that lets them practice their own religion and end forced labor, but they have to help the Spaniards. Outcome: Spanish fail to convert Native Americans, Santa Fe left vulnerable. In Florida, raids by English leave St. Augustine vulnerable.
French in North America
1608: First permanent settlement, Quebec, is founded
1662: King Louis XIV turns New France into a royal colony, tries to get people to move there. Cannot get enough people. New France becomes an area for trading furs. Rise of the Iroquois: French introduce diseases that kill many Indians. Indians get guns from fur trade, which leads to war. The Five Iroquois Nations come out on top, have control of the fur trade in Quebec (with the French) and New Amsterdam (with the Dutch). French Jesuits try to win Indian converts. They do not exploit the Indians, and they come to understand their culture. They eventually win converts by adapting Christianity to the needs of the Indians. Outcome: Despite efforts of the Jesuits, French fur trade causes devastation through disease and loss of Indian culture. Iroquois warriors kill many, though they too are harmed: French burned their villages and killed many warriors in 1666 and again in 1690.
Dutch in North America
Dutch set up a fur-trading post (Fort Orange) along the Hudson River. West India Company has monopoly on the fur. Later, Dutch founded New Amsterdam and made it the capital of New Netherland. Colony didn’t thrive: small population made it vulnerable. Fort Orange succeeds as a peaceful and successful fur-trading post. Dutch near New Amsterdam are more aggressive towards Indians. 1640: war. After the war, West India Company ignores New Netherland, focuses on slave trade. 1664: Dutch fall under control of the English under the Duke of York 1673: Dutch assault momentarily recaptures the colony
Edmund Andros takes control, in retaliation imposes English law and demands allegiance. Outcome: Dutch, who had once been dominant, are now a subject people.
Chapter 6: Making War and Republican Governments (1776-1789)
Patriots demand that colonists join Loyalist or Patriot side – cannot stay neutral. Patriots have advantage to get supporters b/c they control local governments. Patriots make army, and Patriots encouraged people to support the army by taking a more active role in govt. Character of politics changes when common people exert influence: democratic army launches age of republican revolution.
The Trials of War, 1776-1778
Declaration of Independence = British military assault.
War in the North
Britain has military advantage:
1 More people than the Continental Army
2 Financial resources pay for most powerful navy in the world Americans are economically and militarily weak:
1 No strong central govt to raise revenues
2 Poorly trained recruits
Lord North and General William Howe exploit advantage: North orders Howe to capture NYC and Hudson River, which will isolate radical Patriots from the Southerners....