Apush Chapter 3 Notes

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THE SHAPE OF EARLY AMERICA
A. Early American Settlers
Came from the British Isles
Puritans who settled in Massachusetts
Wealthy Royalist cavaliers and their indentured servants migrated to Virginia •Quakers migrated to the Delaware Valley colonies of West Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware B. British folkways brought to the New World

People in the South prefer fried foods- same as southern and western England •People in the hollows of Appalachia who manufactured “moonshine” are doing the same as their ancestors did in the borderlands of northern Britain C. Seaboard ecology

1. Indian modifications
oIndians burned forests and dense undergrowth in order to provide cropland o“Slash-and-burn” describes the migratory agriculture used by the Indians. They would use the same land for 7-8 years (until the nutrients depletes) and then they move on to new land oThis is turn created rich soil and ideal grazing ground for animals 2. European attitudes toward nature

oViewed natural resources as privately owned commodities to be sold for profit 3. Transplanted animals transform the environment
oCreated a new landscape of fields, meadows, fences, barns, and houses oDomesticated animals brought to new world: pigs, sheep, cattle, and horses. Animal crowding forced more deforestation D. Population patterns

1. Rapid population growth
oPopulation grew rapidly
oLand was plentiful and cheap; labor was scarce and dear
2. Earlier marriage age in the colonies
oWhen labor was scarce, children would lend a hand, once they grew up they would find their own land. This caused colonists to marry and start new families at an early age. 3. Lower death rates in the colonies

oBecause women married and bore children at a younger age, they had a few more years to bore more children than those in Europe who married at an older age oLower death rates in result of plenty of food, firewood was plentiful (for winters), Americans were less susceptible to disease (until the mid 1800s) 4. Family patterns in New England compared with those in the southern colonies oMany bachelors in the south (less women in the south, more in the north) oEventually the male- female ration evened out and family sizes grew oFathers taught sons how to hunt, fish, and farm. Mothers taught daughters how to tend to the chickens, the gardens, and the countless household chores E. Role of women in the British colonies

1. Assumptions of female inferiority
o“The woman is a weak creature not endowed with like strength and constancy of mind” oRole in life was to obey and serve their husbands, nurture their children, and endure the taxing labor required to maintain their households. oCould not vote, preach, hold office, attend public schools or colleges, bring lawsuits, make contracts, or own property 2. Eliza Lucas went beyond the traditional role

oDaughter of governor of Antigua
oProduced the first indigo crop (major cash crop)
oTook over father’s plantation at 17
3. Women’s restricted role in churches
oCould not preach
4. Farm and town labor
oWomen did some work around the farm (milking cows/sheep, carrying water, etc) oIn colonial law, land titles rested ultimately upon grants from the crown 5. Prostitution
oThere weren’t enough women to allow the colonies to grow consistently so many had several husbands/partners and sold themselves (knowing they were scarce) 6. Women’s slightly higher colonial status

oHad more jobs and more purpose
oChurch gave them more rights (can divorce, no abuse from husbands) oBecause of shortage of women, they became more valuable
SECTIONAL DIFFERENCES AMONG THE COLONIES
A. Southern Colonies
1. Advantages of the warm climate
2. Tobacco, rice, and naval stores became chief exports
3. Effects of plentiful land and scarce labor
oLand was cheap, sometimes free
4. Indentured servants solved some labor problems
oAccounted for probably half of the white settlers
5. Slavery developed in the southern...
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