A. English Approach to Colonization
1. 16th-century British society was based upon Protestant institutions. 2. Its government was a constitutional monarchy with a Parliament with increasing power 3. The new world climate was not as much of a factor for Great Britain as for Spain. 4. The area settled by Britain faced smaller nomadic tribes over a smaller land area. B. Background for English Colonization
1. English colonies existed before England developed a concept of empire, but at first no specific plan for colonization or overall plan for settlement existed. 2. Roanoke “The Lost Colony”
a. Sir Humphrey Gilbert wrote in 1576 that America was an island. If so there must be a way around it to the north. 1) He made a voyage to the New World (1578-79) to find the Northwest Passage. 2) He returned to the Newfoundland area in June 1583 with five ships and 260 men but perished at sea on the return voyage in Sept. b. Sir Walter Raleigh 's Colony (1584-1602)
1) After Gilbert's half brother, Raleigh, received a renewal of the Gilbert patent, he sailed to the New World in ships commanded by Sir Richard Grenville and Ralph Lane 2) The expedition searched the North American mainland, which he dubbed Virginia, in honor of the "Virgin" Queen. a) They spied on Spanish defenses in the Caribbean and landed on Roanoke Island before returning to England. b) He dispatched a colonizing party (Apr 1585) to Roanoke Island, leaving Lane in charge. c) The colonists abandoned the area (June 1586), returning to England with Sir Francis Drake 3) Grenville returned with supplies to find the colony abandoned and left 15 men. 4) Another expedition under John White arrived in July 1587 and found no survivors, leaving another group of colonists. 5) White returned to England one week after his granddaughter, Virginia Dare (18 Aug), was born, the first English child born in the New World. 6) Unable to return until Aug 1590, Wjote found no trace of the colonists (except for the letters CRO carved in a tree and the word CROANOAN carved in a doorpost). 7) A final expedition dispatched in Mar 1602 made a futile search for survivors. c. George Weymouth searched (Mar 1605 - July 1606) for territory suitable for colonization for English Catholics, after English persecution of Catholics intensified. 3. Motivating factors for English Immigration
a. Desire for a quick profit.
b. A chance to start over with a variety of opportunities and vast amounts of land. c. Religious freedom
1) Although the Elizabethan Settlement made the Church of England more Protestant, in the minds of many it did not go far enough to purge the church of remaining Catholic vestiges. a) Those wishing to stay within the Church of England but further "purify" it of remaining Catholic elements were known as Puritans who viewed themselves as true members of the Church of England who merely desired to make the Church better. b) The struggle between the Crown as head of the Church and Puritans resulted in a Great Migration of them to New England during the reigns of James I , son of Mary, Queen of Scots (aka James VI of Scotland ) and his son, Charles I . c) James I (1603-25) believed in the divine right of kings , saw nonconformity to his bishops as a threat to his authority as king of the realm and therefore stiffened in his opposition to Puritans and Nonconformists. d) Charles I (1625-49) proved to be even more headstrong concerning the monarchy and ruled without Parliament from 1628-40, levying taxes by royal decree. e) The struggle between Charles I and Parliament intensified into a civil war which resulted in the execution of Charles I and an...