Terms and Essays:
1. Traditional paradigm- transplant of English institutions or English culture into North America
2. Atlantic System paradigm- the creation of the Atlantic Ocean as a system or network of exchange after the voyages of Columbus
3. Christopher Columbus- an Italian explorer and navigator from Genoa, who asked King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella for a grant to find India and its treasures. He landed in modern-day Bahamas and claimed he “discovered” America
4. 1492 Edict of Expulsion – what was it? How did it influence Columbus’ voyage? - issued by Catholic monarchy of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, which ousted the Jews from the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon. This occurred at the same time of his voyage, decreasing possible sailors to accompany him, and Jews possibly wanting to leave with him.
5. Amerindians- any member of the peoples living in North or South America before the Europeans arrived.
6. “three sisters:” maize, squash, beans- the first crops to harvest founded by the Native Americans, moving towards a more agricultural society than hunting-gathering.
7. “semi-sedentary” societies- groups of people that stay in a certain area for some time to grow crops and such, then move to another area.
8. Matrilineal- of or based on kinship with the mother or the female line.
9. matrilocal- of or denoting a custom in marriage whereby the husband goes to live with the wife's community.
10. Pueblo- a Native American people in the Southwestern United States consisting of many different language groups and two primary cultural divisions, one formed by matrilineal kinship systems and the other having a patrilineal system, which determine the clan membership of their offspring, and lines of inheritance and descent. Their original economy comprised of agriculture and trade.
11. Creek- a Native American tribe form the Southeastern United States. They are descendants of the Mississippian culture peoples and were considered one of the “Five Civilized Tribes” by George Washington because they had integrated cultural and technological European practices. They were also in the War of 1812 against the U.S. and the Indian Removal of 1830 moved them to Indian reservations.
12. Choctaw- a Native American tribe from the Southeastern United States. They are descendants of the Hopewell and Mississippian tribes. They developed political and geographical divisions: eastern, western, and southern. They also became known as one of the “Five Civilized Tribes”.
13. Iroquois Confederacy- confederation of the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, and Tuscarora Native American tribes across upper present-day New York in the 17th and 18th centuries, which gave the British and French a hard time in their conquest of North America.
14. longhouse- a long communal dwelling of some North American Indians (as the Iroquois).
15. Aztecs- a Native American civilization in Central Mexico who was at their peak in the 16th century, but was overthrown by the Spaniard Hernan Cortes.
16. Hernan Cortés- a Spanish Conquistador who defeated the Aztec empire and brought large portions of the Americans under Spanish rule. 17. Francisco Pizarro- Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incan Empire of Native Americans in Peru.
18. Incas- largest empire prior to the expeditions of Columbus located in Peru. A Native American empire that used different methods to control a large part of western South America. They were overthrown by Spaniard Francisco Pizarro in the 1530’s.
19. Atahualpa- the last Incan emperor before the Spanish conquest. Francisco Pizarro captured him and used him to control the Incan Empire, the Spanish later executed him.
20. Massacre at Cajamarca – what was it? What did it signify the end of? Beginning of?- It is the ambush and capture of Atahualpa (leader of Incas) by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro killing thousands Atahualpa’s nobles and entourage who...
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