The Rise of Cultural Nationalism
Patterns of Education
•Republican vision included enlightened citizenry, wanted nationwide system of free public schools to create educated electorate required by republic •By 1815 no state had a comprehensive public school system, schooling primary by private institutions open only to those who could pay oMost were aristocratic in outlook, trained students to become elite. Few schools for poor •Idea of “republican mother” to train new generation could not be ignorant, late 18thcentury women began to have limited education to make them better wives and mothers- no professional training •Attempts to educate “noble savages” in white culture and reform tribes, African Americans very little schooling- literacy rate very small •Higher education not public, private contribution and tuition necessary, students mostly from prosperous, propertied families. Little professional education Medicine and Science
•Most doctors learned from established practitioners, struggled with introduction of science and combating superstition. Doctors often used dangerous and useless treatments. •Medical profession used its new “scientific” method to justify expanding control to new care- childbirths by doctor and not midwives Cultural Aspirations in the New Nation
•After Europe independence people wanted cultural independence, literary and artistic achievements to rival those of Europe •Nationalism could be found in early American schoolbooks, Noah Webster wanted patriot education- American Spelling Book and American Dictionary of the English Language established national standard of words and usage, simplified and Americanized system of spelling created •High literacy rate and large reading public due to wide circulation of newspapers and political pamphlets. Most printers used cheaper English material, American writers struggled to create strong native literature oCharles Brockden Brown used novels to voice American themes oWashington Irving wrote American folk tales, fables- Rip Van Winkle oHistories that glorified past- Mercy Otis Warren History of the Revolution 1805 emphasized heroism, Mason Weems Life of Washington 1806. History used to instill sense of nationalism Religious Skepticism
•Revolution detached churches from government and elevated liberty and reason, by 1790s few members of formal churches, some embraced “deism” •Books and articles attacking religious “superstitions” popular, Thomas Paine’s The Age of Reason. •Skepticism led to “universalism” and “Unitarianism”, at first within New England Congregational Church, later separate- rejected predestination, salvation for all, Jesus only great religious teacher not son of God •Spread of rationalism led to less commitment to organized churches and denominations considered too formal and traditional, comeback starting 1801 The Second Great Awakening
•Origin 1790s from efforts to fight spread of religious rationalism. Baptists, Presbyterian, Methodists successful at combating New Light dissenters •By 1800 awakening that began at Yale had spread throughout country and to the west, “camp meetings” by evangelical ministers produced religious frenzy •Second Great Awakening called individuals to readmit God and Christ into daily life reject skeptical rationalism. New sects rejected predestination, combined piety with belief of God as active force whose grace achieved thru faith and works •Accelerated growth of new sects as opposed to return to established churches, provided sense of order and social stability to people searching for identity •Women particularly drawn to revivalism because women more numerous in certain regions, movement of industrial work out of home led to personal and social strains that religion was used to compensate for •Revival led to rise of black preachers who interpreted religious message of salvation available to all into right to freedom •Native American dislocation and defeats...