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Unit 12: Industrialization, Urbanization, and Immigration

Part I: Industrialization

#1: How was the “2nd Industrial Revolution” different from the “1st Industrial Revolution?” First IR
* Late 1700s to 1865
* Textiles, clothing, leather products
* Regional (concentrated in Northeast)
Second IR
* 1865 to 1900
* Heavy industry (steel, oil, electricity, industrial machinery) * National (started to include South, West)

#2: Why did the US economy grow so rapidly from 1865 to 1900? Abundant natural resources
* Coal, iron, copper, lead, timber, oil
Abundant labor
* Supplemented by immigration
Largest market in world for industrial goods
Abundant capital ($)
Labor saving technologies
* 440,000 new patents b/w 1860-1890
Friendly government policies
* Subsidies for RR; tariffs for businesses; low taxes
Talented entrepreneurs

#3: How did the railroads (the US’s 1st big business) impact the US? Created national market
* You could sell your goods everywhere!
Encouraged mass production and consumption
* You could sell your goods everywhere!
Promoted growth of other industries
* Multiplier effect
* Coal and steel
Changed routines of daily life
* American RR Association divided US into 4 time zones in 1883 to promote efficiency * “RR time” became standard time for all Americans

#4: How did the railways become more efficient from 1865 to 1900? Trunk lines were created AND rails were standardized
* Trunk line: major route between large cities (ex: NY to Chicago) * Created as large investors bought up small lines, connected them, and standardized the tracks

#5: Who was one of the 1st to build trunk lines and standardize the tracks? Cornelius Vanderbilt
* New York Central Railroad
* NY to Chicago
* 4,500 miles of track

#6: How did the US government promote the construction of the western railways? Subsidies
* government $ to help build
Land grants
* Got gave RR companies land along RR routes
* RR companies would then sell the land to finance RR construction

#7: What transcontinental railways were built in the late 1800s? Central Pacific-Union Pacific (1869)
* CP: Sacramento to east
* UP: Omaha to west
* Met at Promontory Point, Utah
Southern Pacific (1883)
* New Orleans to Los Angeles
Northern Pacific (1883)
* Duluth, Minnesota to Seattle
Atchison-Topeka-Santa Fe (1883)
* Kansas City to Los Angeles

#8: What technological breakthrough launched the rise of heavy industry in the 2nd IR? Discovery of a new process for making large quantities of steel Bessemer Process
* Blasted air through molten iron made stronger steel

#9: What area became the center of the steel industry?
Great Lakes region (Chicago, Cleveland, Pittsburgh)
* Abundant coal
* Access to iron ore of Minnesota
* Railway hubs

#10: Who became the leader in the steel industry?
Andrew Carnegie
* Scottish immigrant
* 1870s: started steel mill in Pittsburgh
* Used latest technology to improve efficiency
* Used vertical integration
* Carnegie Steel controlled every phase of steel production process (from mining iron ore, to RR’s, to mills) * By 1900, Carnegie Steel produced more steel than entire country of Britain * Sold Carnegie Steel for $400 million in 1900

* Philanthropy and his attitude toward wealth (read Carnegie doc on wealth) * Contrast with Eugene Debs and socialism (read Debs document)

#11: Who dominated the steel industry after Carnegie?
J. P. Morgan
* Bought Carnegie Steel in 1900 for $400 million (Carnegie became philanthropist) * Formed US Steel
* 1st billion dollar company
* Largest company in world in 1900
* Employed 170,000

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