Aphg5 Outline

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  • Topic: Indo-European languages, Language family, Slavic languages
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Chapter 5 Rubenstein
Language

A. Language is system of communication through speech, a collection of sounds that a group of people understands to have the same meaning. 1. Language is a part of culture
2. Geographers ask “where” different languages are used and “why” different languages have distinct distributions

B. Literary tradition is a written language (many spoken languages have no written languages)

C. KEY ISSUE 1: Where are different languages distributed? 1. Language families are a collection of languages related through common ancestry; the families are: a. Indo-European (50% of spoken languages)

b. Sino-Tibetan (20% of spoken languages)
c. Austronesian (in Southeast Asia)
d. Afro-Asiatic (in the Middle East)
e. Niger-Congo (in Africa)
f. Dravidian (in India)
g. 5% of spoken languages from c. – f. combined h. Remaining 10% of spoken languages a member of smaller families not listed above

2. Language branch is a division of a language family; branches share a common origin, but have evolved into different languages

3. Language group is a division of a language branch; individual languages share a common origin in the relatively recent past and displays relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.

4. English belongs to the West Germanic group of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family

5. Dialect is a form of a language spoken in a certain area distinguished by a regional spelling, vocabulary, and pronunciation – E.G. American and British English

6. Official language is a form of a language used in business, government, education, etc. in areas that speak more than one language

7. Indo-European Language Family:
a. More than 3 billion people speak languages of the Indo-European Family b. Branches are:
1). Indo-Iranian
2). Romance
3). Germanic
4). Balto-Slavic
5). Albanian
6). Greek
7). Celtic
c. English comes from the Germanic Branch which can be divided into 3 groups: West Germanic, North Germanic, and East Germanic 1). East Germanic group is “extinct”
2). West Germanic group can be divided into 2 sub-groups: High and Low Germanic subgroups a). High Germanic spoken in southern mountains of Germany and is basis for modern, standard German b). Low Germanic is spoken in the northern lowlands of Germany where Angles, Saxons, and Jutes lived, so English comes from the Low Germanic subgroup of the West Germanic Group.

3. North Germanic Group
a). Languages from this group are spoken in Scandinavian countries and include Swedish, Dutch, Danish, Norwegian, and Icelandic b). Iceland was colonized in 874AD by Norwegian settlers who developed a literary tradition 1). Due to Iceland’s isolation, original language didn’t change much 2).This is an example of people migrating and taking their language, and hence part of their culture with them

8. Romance language branch
a. Derived from Latin
b. Latin diffused with Roman Empire
c. Latin evolved during reign of Roman Empire
1). “Common” people spoke “vulgar” (masses) Latin they learned from Roman soldiers stationed in various regions of the Roman Empire 2). As provinces grew more isolated from the seat of the Roman Empire, the regional variations in Latin also grew more isolated d. Modern Romance languages are:

1). Spanish
2). Portuguese
3). French
4). Italian...
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