This guide contains examples of references in APA style. The references are grouped by category: periodicals; books and reference books; technical and research reports; meetings and symposia; doctoral dissertations and master’s theses; reviews and peer commentary; audiovisual media; data sets, software, measurement instruments, and apparatus; unpublished and informally published works; archival documents and collections; and internet message boards, electronic mailing lists, and other online communities. In addition, general samples of corresponding citations are provided within each reference category.
Items published on a regular basis such as journals, magazines, newspapers, and newsletters.
Reference List Format
Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Publication Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume # (issue #), pp-pp. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx If no digital object identifier (DOI) is assigned, include the home page URL for the periodical using this format: Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxxx.xxx
Example: Journal article with DOI
Florian, R. V. (2010). Challenges for interactivist-constructivist robotics. New Ideas in Psychology, 28(3), 350-353. doi: 10.1016/j.newideapsych.2009.09.009
Example: Journal article without DOI
Santovec, M. (2008). Easing the transition improves grad retention at Trinity U. Women in Higher Education, 17(10), 32. Retrieved from http://www.wihe.com/
Example: Magazine article, print
Sloan, C., Booth, S., & Tate, A. (2010, July). Why I became an American. Real Simple. 186-192.
Example: Online magazine article
Cendrowicz, L. (2010, July). Will Europe’s bank stress tests bring calm or spread more fear? Time. Retrieved from http://www.time.com/time/business/article/0,8599,2005557,00.html
Example: Online newspaper article
Tobin Ramos, R. (2010, July 22). UPS profit nearly doubles in second quarter. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved from http://www.ajc.com
Example: Newsletter article In-text citation samples
Burnside, P. (2010, July). Why EFTPS is a good fit for governments. FSLG Newsletter. Retrieved from http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-tege/p4090_0710.pdf Citing paraphrased information: Paraphased text (Santovec, 2008) or According to Santovec (2008), paraphrased text. Citing quoted information: “Quote” (Santovec, 2008, para. 3). or As stated by Santovec (2008), “quote” (para. 3). Citing online publications: If a page number is not available use paragraph numbers (use the abbreviation para.). If the document includes headings but does not provide page or paragraph numbers, cite the heading and the number of the paragraph following the heading. For example, (Wilson, 2010, “Educating Adults,” para. 2).
Books, Reference Books, & Book Chapters
Books and reference books such as encyclopedias, dictionaries, and discipline-specific reference books. Also includes books that are published in electronic form. Reference List Format: Book (print or electronic) Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Publication Year). Title of book. Location: Publisher Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Publication Year). Title of book. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxx.xxx Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Publication Year). Title of book. doi:xxxxxxx Editor’s Last Name, Initials. (Ed.). (Publication Year). Title of book. Location: Publisher
Example: Book, print version
Diaz-Rico, L. T. (2008). A course for teaching English learners. Boston, MA: Pearson.
Example: Book, Ashford custom edition
Ivancevich, J.M., Matteson, M..T., Bateman, T.S., Snell, S.A., Kreitner, R., & Kinicki, A. (2007). Organizational change. (Ashford University ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
Example: Book, compilation or
Easton, T.A. (Ed.). (2008). Clashing views on environmental issues (12th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
Example: Book, electronic (Constellation eBook)
Witt, G.A., & Mossler, R.A. (2010) Adult Development. Retrieved from...