Ap World History Summer Work Vocabulary

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Paleolithic Age: The period of Stone Age associated with the evolution of humans. Predates the Neolithic period. Neolithic Age: The period of the Stone Age associated with the ancient Agricultural Revolution(s). Follows by Paleolithic period. Foragers: People who support themselves by hunting wild animals & gathering wild edible plants & insects. Agricultural Revolution: The change from food gathering to food production that occurred between ca. 8000 & 2000 B.C.E (also known as Neolithic Revolution). Megaliths: Structures & complexes of very large stones constructed for ceremonial & religious purposes in Neolithic times. Hammurabi: Amorite ruler of Babylon (r. 1792-1750 B.C.E). he conquered many city-states in southern & northern Mesopotamia & is best known for a code of laws, inscribed on a black stone pillar, illustrating the principles to be used in legal cases. Ziggurat: a massive pyramidal stepped tower made of mud bricks. It is associated with religious complexes in ancient Mesopotamian cities, but its function is unknown. Cuneiform: a system of writing in which wedge-shaped symbols represented words or syllables. composed of slim triangular or wedge-shaped elements, as the characters used in writing by the ancient Akkadians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, & others. Hieroglyphics: a system of writing in which pictorial symbols represented sounds, symbols, or concepts. Used for official & monumental inscriptions in ancient Egypt. Mandate of Heaven: Chinese religion & political ideology developed by the Zhou, according to which it was the prerogative of Heaven, the chief deity, to grant power to the ruler of China & to take away the power of the ruler failed to conduct himself justly & in the best interest of his subjects. Daoism: Chinese school of thought, originating in the Warring State Period with Laozi (604-531 B.C.E) Iron Age: Historians’ term for the period during which iron was the primary metal for tools & weapons. Diaspora: A Greek word meaning “dispersal” used to describe the communities of a given ethnic group living outside their homeland. Zoroastrianism: an Iranian religion, founded c600 B.C. by Zoroaster, the principal beliefs of which are in the existence of a supreme deity, Ahura Mazda, & in a cosmic struggle between a spirit of good, Spenta Mainyu, & a spirit of evil, Angra Mainyu. Hoplites: heavily armored Greek infantryman of the Archaic & classical periods who fought in the close-packed phalanx formation. Trireme: a galley with three rows or tiers of oars on each side, one above another, used chiefly as a warship. Hellenistic Age: The period from the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C. to the middle of the first century B.C. Pax Romana: “Roman peace”. It connoted the stability & prosperity that Roman rule brought to the lands of the Roman Empire in the first two centuries. Confucius & doctrine: Western name for the Chinese philosopher Kongzi. His doctrine of duty & public service had great influence on subsequent Chinese tought & served as a code of conduct for government officials. Buddha: any of a series of teachers in Buddhism, of whom Gautama was the last, who bring enlightenment & wisdom. Jainism: a dualistic religion founded in the 6th century b.c. as a revolt against current Hinduism & emphasizing the perfectibility of human nature & liberation of the soul, especially through asceticism & nonviolence toward all living creatures. Hinduism: the common religion of India, based upon the religion of the original Aryan settlers as expounded & evolved in the Vedas, the Upanishads, the Bhagavad-Gita, etc., having an extremely diversified character with many schools of philosophy & theology, many popular cults, & a large pantheon symbolizing the many attributes of a single god. Buddhism & Jainism are outside the Hindu tradition but are regarded as related religions. Karma: (Hinduism, Buddhism). Action, seen as bringing upon oneself inevitable results, good or bad, either in this life or...
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