Ap World History Review

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APWH Exam Review Guide
This is basically everything we’ve ever learned in APWH, which I’ve compiled all into one study guide for use on the AP Exam. I know it’s a lot, and I apologize: but we’ve learned a lot. I’ve gone through the entire Princeton Review Book: reading, highlighting, and annotating to make sure I’ve covered everything important, along with outlines, handouts, websites, and other books. I really want everyone to do well, and I know you all will anyway—but I think this will help. I’m sorry if I’ve missed anything, but I don’t think there are any errors. I apologize if some charts or symbols don’t load/are loaded weird on your computer. (e.g. I made several pyramid charts of social structures which may not load due to lower versions of MS Word, in which case I strongly recommend you get someone else to print out the study guide for you, because they are important. Good Luck!

I. 8,000 B.C.E. to 600 C.E.

Paleolithic Era (Old Stone Age)[Pre-8,000 B.C.E.]
* Basic needs: food & shelter
* Developments of basic stone tools
* Did not build permanent settlements (nomadic)
* Foraging societies (hunter-gatherer clans)
* traveled from point to point as the climate, and availability of plants and animals dictated * limited by capacity of surroundings and inability to store food long-term * Pastoral societies (herder clans)

* Domesticated animals and used small-scale agriculture * Social status based on size of herd
* Extended family
* Women had few rights
* Still more equality than later societies (like classical)
Neolithic Era (New Stone Age/Agricultural Revolution) [8,000 B.C.E-3,000B.C.E. = shift] * nomadic lifestyle to sedentary lifestyles (agricultural surplus/population increase) * Cultivating plants near good soil and stable water source * Domesticating animals

* Developing more simple tools
* Sense of unity/cultural tradition/thinking of property in terms of ownership * Individual labor becomes specialized organized economies, governmental structures, religious organizations * *“civilization”*

* Irrigation techniques
* Roads built to connect civilizations; buildings & monuments * End of Neolithic Era: The Bronze Age
* Copper + Tin = Bronze
* Bronze = strong! (good for tools and better weapons!)

Classical Civilizations [3,000 B.C.E.-2,000B.C.E. = Start of development](all aspects of Neolithic Era apply for developments to Classical Civilizations)

Mesopotamia
* “land between the rivers” (Tigris & Euphrates)
* “Fertile Crescent” = good soil, rich in nutrients
* Unpredictable flooding
* Learned to build canals, dikes, and irrigation systems around it * Sumer: first major Mesopotamian civilization
* Developed writing (cuneiform)
* Made laws, treaties, and social and religious customs to be tradition * Lots of trade
* Calendar/math systems
* Polytheistic; built temples (ziggurats)
* Disaster/Invasions Overthrown in 1,700 B.C.E.
* Sumer’s culture set basis for rest of Mesopotamian societies! * Military/little amount of bureaucracy based on birth & nobility * SumeriaAkkadBabylon
* King Hammurabi of Babylon
* Code of Hammurabi
* Distinguished between major and minor offenses * Sense of justice and fairness
* “eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth”
* BabylonKassitesHittites
* 1,500 B.C.E. Hittites dominated with iron weapons (iron = stronger than bronze) * Military superpower
* Trade caused spread of ideas, culture, and technology
* i.e. Assyrians learned to make iron and use it against Hittites to conquer * Defeated by Chaldeans
* King: Nebuchadnezzar (beautified Babylon)
* Persian Empire
* Gigantic (Sassanid) empire by 500 B.C.E.
*...
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