Ap World History Chapter 8 Notes

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Ian Cabalo
October 2012
Period Two
AP World History
Unit 2: Chapter 8: The Unification of China

In Search of Political and Social Order
A. Confucius (551-479 B.C.E.) and His School
1. Confucius
a. Educator and political authority
b. Sayings were compiled in the Analects by his disciples 2. Confucian Ideas
a. Basically honesty and ethical in character
b. Thoroughly practical: how to restore political and social order c. Concentrated on formation of Junzi "superior individuals" d. Edited and assembled the Zhou classics for his disciples to study 3. Key Confucian Values

a. Ren: A sense of humanity, kindness, benevolence b. Li: A sense of propriety, courtesy, respect, deference to elders c. Xiao: Filial piety, familial obligation

d. Develop personal ethics and Junzi for bringing order to China 4. Mencius (372-289 B.C.E.), spokesman for the Confucian school a. Believed in the goodness of human nature (Ren) b. Supported government by generosity and humanity 5. Xunzi (298-238 B.C.E.) had a less positive view of human nature a. Believed that humans selfishly pursue own interests b. Preferred harsh social discipline to bring order to society c. Supported moral education and good public behavior B Daoism Featured Prominent Critics of Confucian Activism 1. Preferred rational reflection and self-examination, a life in harmony with nature 2. Laozi, founder of Daoism, allegedly wrote the Daodejing a. Classic of the Way and of Virtue

3. Zhuangzi (compendium of Daoist philosophy)
4. The Dao--the way of nature, the way of the cosmos
a. Elusive concept: an eternal principle governing all the workings of the world b. Dao is passive and yielding, does nothing yet accomplishes everything c. Humans should adapt their behavior to the lifeless and easy nature of the Dao d. Desire and activism had only brought the world to chaos e. Doctrine of Wuwei: disengagement from worldly affairs, simple life f. Support small, self-sufficient communities

5. Political implications: served as counterbalance to Confucian activism

Ian Cabalo
October 2012
Period Two
AP World History
Unit 2: Chapter 8: The Unification of China

In Search of Political and Social Order (continued)

C Legalism
1. The doctrine of practical and efficient statecraft a. No concern with ethics and morality
b. No concern with the principles governing nature 2. Shang Yang (ca. 390-338 B.C.E.), chief minister of Qin and Legalist writer 3. Han Feizi (ca. 280-233 B.C.E.) synthesized Legalist ideas in essays 4. Legalist doctrine

a. The state's strength was in agriculture and military force b. Discouraged commerce, education, and the arts c. Harnessing self-interest of the people for the needs of the state d. Called for harsh penalties even for minor infractions e. Advocated collective responsibility before the law f. Not popular among Chinese, but practical; put end to Period of Warring States The Unification of China

A. The Qin Dynasty
1. Qin, Located in west China, adopted Legalist policies
a. Encouraged agriculture, resulted in strong economy
b. Organized a powerful army equipped with iron weapons c. Conquered other states and unified China in 221 B.C.E. 2. The first emperor was Qin Shihuangdi (221 B.C.E.)
a. Established centralized imperial rule
b. Project of connecting and extending the Great Wall
c. Buried 460 scholars alive because of their criticism against the Qin d. Burned all books except some with utilitarian value...
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