Ap World History Chapter 26 Notes

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Chapter 26 Notes: Ottomans and Arabs
Ottomans: Factors of Decline
* Competition between elite
* Weak rulers
* Increasingly powerful Janissary corps
* Increased competition from European merchants
* Military challenges from the West
* Ottomans vs. Russia (result: loss of Serbia, Greece, and most of Balkans) Survival
* Played European rivals against each other
* Selim III: reformed bureaucracy, new army and navy. Killed by janissaries in 1807 * Mahmud II: slaughtered Janissaries, families and religious allies, reforms based on Western influence (angered conservative religious leaders) * Tanzimat Reforms (1939-1876): series of Western influenced reforms in education, government, newspapers, and constitution. Introduction of railroad and telegraph systems (effect: communication increased, minority groups increased power) * Consequences: artisans negatively effected (thank you, Britain), women ‘s status remained stagnant Backlash to Reforms

* Conflict between old and new orders
* Abdul Hamid: attempted to return to despotic governing.. nullified constitution, removed Westerners in power, continued SOME Western policies * Coup 1908: Ottoman Society for Union and Progress (Young Turks) fought for return to 1976 constitution, Sultan remained as figurehead. * War in North Africa: Ottomans lost Libya

* Young Turks vs. Arabs
* World War I: Turkey sided with Germany….
Arab Heartlands
* Fertile Crescent, Egypt, North Africa\Identified with Ottoman rulers as Muslims, disliked Ottoman rule * Fear of Western rule
Muhammad Ali, Westernizing Europe
* Napoleon invades Egypt (1798): example of Western military power, eventually defeated by the British * Western reforms introduced (military, agriculture) little accomplished in the long-term * Khedives: Muhammad’s descendants, ruled Egypt until 1952 Issues and European Help

* Cotton: solely dependent on export
* Misuse of money by the...
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