Ap World History Chapter 16 - Stearns Textbook

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The Americas on the Eve of Invasion
I. Introduction
a. By 1500, Americas densely populated by Indians – misnomer – Columbus/Indies i. Term has meaning only when used to apply to non-Indians b. Mesoamerica and Andean heartland
ii. Imperial states in place when Europe arrives
iii. Few areas influenced by two main centers
iv. Areas that developed independently
II. Postclassic Mesoamerica
c. Introduction
v. Toltecs/Aztecs replace Mayas of 8th century CE
1. By 15th century Aztecs created extensive empire – war, religion, agrarian vi. Downfall of Mayans – Teotihuacan
2. Nomads from North come down
3. Toltec Culture – 968 established capital Tula a. Sedentary/agrarian peoples with militaristic ethic b. Cult of sacrifice/war
c. Aztecs saw Toltecs as givers of civilization d. The Toltec Heritage
vii. Leader Topilitzin followed Quetzalcoatl – feathered serpent viii. Empire spread over much of central Mexico
ix. 1000 Conquered Chichen Itza – Mayans under control of Toltecs x. Toltec influence northward
4. Trade turquoise with American Southwest
5. How far – to Mississippi/Ohio – debatable evidence d. Stepped temples – Monk’s Mound
e. Ritual sacrifice
f. pottery
g. Social stratification
h. Large city – Cahokia could handle 30,000 people e. The Aztec Rise to Power – eagle with serpent on cactus – Toltec lasted till 1150 xi. Geography – aquatic environment – chinampas 6. Aztecs/Mexicas won control of lake – AZTLAN(Aztec name derived) 7. Nomadic tribes or agricultural culture—migrared to the shores of Lake Texcoco (1235) xii. Political structure – centralized city with tributary city-states(like medieval Europe-politial maneuvers, state marriages, competing powers, shifting alliances…) xiii. Military – tough warriors/fanatic followers of religion(reputation made them both valued and feared) xiv. 1428 emerged as independent power. Tenochtitilan and Aztecs dominated allies and controlled major share of tribute and lands taken xv. Toltec natives spoke Nahautal(so did Aztecs—made their rise to power more acceptable) xvi. eagle with serpent on cactus—wanderings would end; sign seen on a marshy island in Lake Texcoco-Mexica settled there. Tenochtitlan founded about 1325 f. The Aztec Social Contract

xvii. Subject peoples
8. Pay tribute, surrender lands, military service 9. King civil power/god on earth
xviii. Stratified society
10. Histories rewritten
11. Mexica’s chosen to serve the gods
xix. Human sacrifice – cult of military class supplying war captives as sacrifices xx. Few territories left unconquered, periodic “flower wars” in which both sides obtained captives for sacrifice g. Religion and the Ideology of Conquest

xxi. Incorporated features from past Mesoamerican religions(vast, uniting, oppressive force) 12. Little distinction between world of gods and natural world 13. (128)Deities – fire, rain(TLALOC), water, corn, sky, sun – pantheon i. {Gods of fertility/agriculture}

j. {Creator deities}
k. {Warfare and sacrifice}-Huitzilopochtli-center figure of this cult, tribal deity of Toltec’s l. Different manifestations
m. Each god-five aspects
14. Female and male form for all gods(like Hinduism) xxii. Yearly festivals/ceremonies
15. Expansive calendar
16. Many ceremonies w/ particular points in calendar cycle xxiii. Sacrifice - to energize the sun god – needed nourishment of...
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