Ap World History Chapter 1 Notes

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-AP World History - StearnsChapter 1 – From Human Prehistory to the Early CivilizationsI. IntroductionA. Human origin – 2.5 million years ago1. 1/4000 of earth’s existence – 24 hour day – last 5 minutesB. Human negatives and positives1. Aggressiveness, long baby time, back problems, death fears2. Grip, high/regular sex drive, omnivores, facial expressions, speechC. Paleolithic (Old Stone) Age – 2.5 million to 12000 BCE1. Simple tools – increase in size, brain capacity – Homo erectusII. Late Paleolithic DevelopmentsA.Homo sapiens sapiens – 120,000 years ago – killed off others?a.Population growth required change – 1 square mile to hunt/gather for 2 peoplei.Long breast feeding – limit fertilityii.Relative gender equality – women harder, but both contributed b.Rituals for death, explain environment, rules for social behavior c.Greatest achievement – spread over earthi.Fire/animal skinii.14,000 Great ice age endedd.Tools – sharpen animal bones, raftse.Domesticated animalsf.Conflicts w/ others – bone breaks/skull fracturesB. Knowledge based on cave paintings, tool remains, burial sitesIII. Neolithic (New Stone) Age RevolutionA. Agriculture changed everything – could support more people1. Settle one spot – focus on economic, political, religious goals2. 14,000-10,000 BCE – 6 million to 100 million peopleB. Causes of Agriculture1. Population increase – better climate2. Big game animals decreasing – hunting yield declined3. Gradual change – harvesting wild grains to planting seedsC. New animals domesticated – pigs, sheep, goats, cattle1. Meat, skins, dairy2. Advantage to Europe?D. Why Middle East?1. Water source, fertile area, not forested, lacked animalsE. “Revolution” gradual – many combined changes w/ hunting gathering – 1000 yearsF. Effects1. Longer work week – labor intensive2. Build houses, villages3. Varied clothingG. Resistance – too complicated, boring, difficult1. Disease – those in villages developed immunity – nomads died off/joined2. Some isolated societies...
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